Tuesday, August 16, 2022

Class 12 Social Grid and Model question [कक्षा १२ को सामाजिक बिषयको विशिष्टीकरण तालिका र नमूना प्रश्नपत्र

Class 12 Social Grid and Model question [कक्षा १२ को सामाजिक बिषयको विशिष्टीकरण तालिका र नमूना प्रश्नपत्र] 

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Friday, April 30, 2021

 

Meanings into Words

 

Unit: 1

1.6. New Experience

Structure:

1.                  This is the first time + sub + has/have + ever + V3 + obj.

2.                  Sub + has/have +never + V3 + obj + before.

3.                  Sub + is/am/are + not + used to + V4 + obj.

 

Q. Continue the remarks below in three different ways as in the following example:

Example: I can’t get to sleep…

a) This is the first time I have ever slept in a tent.

b) I have never flown at night before.

c) I’m not used to having siestas.

 

Exercise: 1. My feet are killing me.

a)      This is the first time I have ever walked such a long distance.

b)      I have never climbed hill before.

c)      I am not used to walking on sand.

 

2. God, this is embarrassing….

a) This is the first time I have ever called for a speech.

b) I have never failed in my exam before.

c) I am not used to talking with the foreigners.

 

3. Do you think you could slow down a little?...

            a) This is the first time I have ever felt giddy in a car.

            b) I have never travelled in such a high-speed car before.

            c) I am not used to traveling on motorbike at night.

 

4. She is feeling terribly nervous….

            a) This is the first time she has ever failed in exam.

            b) She has never scolded by her father before.

            c) She is not used to dancing on the stage.

5. Hold my hand, will you?...

 

            a) This is the first time I have ever climbed the hill.

            b) I have never crossed the river before.

            c) I am not used to crossing such busy road.

 

6. He is absolutely delighted…

            a) This is the first time he has ever got distinction in the exam.

            b) He has never got first prize before.

            c) He is not used to getting highest mark in his class.

 

7. I hope they get there all right…

            a) This is the first time they have visited Pokhara.

            b) They have never reached at Jomsom before.

            c) They are not used to climbing mountain.

 

Writing (page 7)

Q. Write a letter of application for the post of a teacher in a school including the following things about you:  Name, age, occupation, educational qualification, relevant experience                                                        

 

                                                                                                                       Adarshnagar

                                                                                                                        Nepalgunj           

                                                                                                                        5th Jan, 2012

The Principal,

Bhrikuti Higher secondary School,

Nepalgunj

                                   

Subject: for the post of a teacher.

Sir,

With due respect, I’d like to apply for the post of a teacher With reference to your advertisement published in ‘The Kathmandu Post, yesterday. I wish to apply for the post of a teacher in your school. As a successful candidate, I’d like to apply for the post.

 

I am a young and energetic man of the age of 20.I have passed S.L.C from Gyanodaya School in first division and higher secondary level from Stanford College in second division. I have worked as a teacher in Red Hill Academy for two years. I am good in English. I have done diploma in computer application from Intel Computer Institute. I think my qualification and experience will be appropriate for the post.

 

If I will be selected for the post, I will do my best. I would perform my duty honestly. I have attached my CV and documents with this letter.

Hoping for a favourable reply.

Yours Faithfully,

Akash Sharma

 

Composition (page 9)

Q.You are now living in one of the flat you visited. Write a letter to a friend, describing what it is like living there, and what the people there are like.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Adarshnagar

                                                                                                                                    Nepalgunj

                                                                                                                                    Date: 04/01/2012

Dear Neelam,

            I got your letter yesterday and I became extremely happy knowing about your new flat. Now I am going to write you about my new flat.

            As you know that I am away from my house for my study. I am living in a new flat here in Nepalgunj. This is the first time I have ever left my house. I am living here alone in my room. In the beginning I felt home sickness, but now I don’t feel so. I am happily living here. My room is in a second flat of new house. My room is very good for my study as it if quiet and it is very bright. All the people in my flat are college students. They are very helpful and cooperative. They always help me in difficulties and they always ask me if I have any problem.

            If you have free time, you can come to my flat to stay for some days. I hope I will get your reply soon.

                                                                                                                                                Yours

                                                                                                                                    Bidhan Sharma

 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 2

* he/she/ it = looks

* I/we/you/they = looks

 

 

2.1. Judging from appearances Rules:

1.      Adjective = look

Sub + look (S) + adj.

2.      Noun = look like

Sub + look(S) like + noun.

3.      Clause (Sub+V+obj) = look as if / look as though

Sub + look(S) as if /look(S) as though + clause.

Q. Make sentences using look, look like, look as if /look as though

1. [ It is about a man. So the subject is “He”]

a) he needs a wash

He looks as if he heeds a wash.

b) rather aggressive

He looks rather aggressive.

c) a tramp

He looks like a tramp.

d) angry

He looks angry.

e) he is going to start a fight

He looks as if he is going to start a fight.

2. [ It is about a machine. So the subject is “it”]

a) terribly complicated

It looks terribly complicated.

b) it cost a lot

It looks as if it cost a lot.

c) very elegant

It looks very elegant.

d) something from outer space.

It looks like something from outer space.

e) it gives excellent reproduction

It looks as if it gives excellent reproduction.

3. [ It is about two people. So the subject is “they”]

a) a honeymoon couple

They look like a honeymoon couple.

b) they are celebrating

The look as if they are celebrating.

c) they’re in love

They look as if they are in love.

d) happy

They look happy.

e) they have just had some good news

They look as if they have just had some good news.

2.2. Looks as if & looks as though.

Look at the following example and complete the flowing exercise.

Example: You see a man lying on the ground in a pool of blood.

                        He looks as if he has just been shot.

                        He looks as if he is seriously wounded.

                        He looks as if he’s about to die.

1. You see a girl standing on the seashore, staring into the water.

            She looks as if she has lost her ring.

            She looks as if she is watching fish

            She looks as if she is about to commit suicide.

2. You see a man lying on the floor, laughing.

            He looks as if he is mad.

            He looks as if he has drunk beer.

            He looks as if he is going to act on a play.

3. You see a woman whose cloths are soaked and she is sneezing.

            She looks as if she has just bathed.

            She looks as if she is walking in rain.

            She looks as if she is about to change her cloths.

4. You see a man lying underneath a car.

            He looks as if he is a thief.

            He looks as if has escaped from a jail.

            He looks as if he is going to hide something.

5. You see someone climbing through a window.

            He looks as if he is a thief.

            He looks as if he has lost his key.

            He looks as if he is about to clean his window.

Now try these:

Eye = look as if

Ear = sound as if

Nose = smell as if

Skin = feel as if

Mouth = taste as if

6) You can hear people singing next door.

-They sound as if they are dancing.

7) When you open the door of your flat, there is a strong smell of smoke.

It smells as if someone is smoking.

8) When you touch your writing desk, you notice it is sticky.

It feels as if someone has spilt gum on it.

9) When you drink a glass of water, you realize it certainly isn’t ordinary drinking water.

It tastes as if it is lemon water.

 

2.3. General Impression: SEEM

Rule:

1.      Is/ am/are = Sub + Seem (s) to + be + obj

2.      don’t /doesn’t = Sub + don’t /doesn’t + seem to + V1 + obj.

3.      Isn’t = Sub + doesn’t + seem to +be + obj.

Seem to +V1               (He, She, It =Seems to)

                                    (I, we, you, they = Seem to)

                                    (Don’t /doesn’t = Seem to)

            Is = be

            Are = be

            Am = be

            V5 = V1          (Watches = watch)

            V1 = V1

            Has = have

            Have = have

            V2 = have +V3

Q. Change the sentences using SEEM.

a) He is very friendly.

He seems to be very friendly.

b) He isn’t very rich.

He doesn’t seem to be very rich.

c) He’s happily married.

He seems to be happily married.

d) He’s some kind of businessman.

He seems to be some kind of businessman.

e) He doesn’t spend much tome out of doors,

He doesn’t seem to spend much time out of doors.

f) He watches television a lot.

He seems to watch television a lot.

g) He has lived a very interesting life.

He seems to have lived a very interesting life.

Q. Rewrite the following sentences using Seem.

1. He never stops to chat with you if you have got your dog with you.

-He seems to be afraid of dogs.

2. His front garden always looks a bit neglected.

-He seems to be lazy.

3. There are African masks on the wall of his sitting room.

-He seems to have visited Africa at once.

4. The postman always delivers a lot of letters with foreign stamps to his house.

-He seems to know many people in foreign countries.

5. You only see his children during the school holidays.

-They seem to be at a boarding school.

6. He usually carries a walking stick when he goes out.

-He seems to be a lame person.

2.5. Describing people

Physical features:

Hair: curly, straight, fair, short, dark, shoulder-length, wavy

Face: round, oval, square, dark

Eyes: narrow, wide, brown, blue,

Eye brows: thick, thin

Nose: pointed, hooked, crooked

Lips: thick, thin

Chin: Pointed, parted, doubled, cleft

Special features: dimple, scar, mole, moustache, beard, pimple.

2.6 Guessing Age

Tender age:  0-12 years

Teen age: 13-19 years

Twenties: 20-29 years

Thirties: 30-39 years

Forties: 40-49 years

Fifties: 50-59 years, and so on.

Early-mid-late

Early twenties: 20, 21, 22, 23

Mid twenties: 24, 25, 26

Late Twenties: 27, 28, 29

Q. Say approximately when these people were born and then decide what age they are now.

1. Richard 1930/3

Richard was born in the early thirties

He is now in his late seventies.

2. Alan 1964/5

Alan was born in the mid sixties.

He is now in his late thirties.

3. Susan 1895/1905

Susan was born sometime during the decade 1895 to 1905.

He is now in his hundred above.

4. Jan 1928/9

Jane was born in the late twenties.

She is now in her mid seventies.

5. Alison 1941/3

Alison was born in the early forties.

He is now in his late fifties.

6. Geraldine 1960/1

Geraldine was born in the early sixties.

She is now in her early fifties.

Q. Now work out these people’s approximate ages.

1. Mike started school in 1947.

Mike is in his mid sixties.

2. Albert Smith fought in the First World War.

Albert is over one hundred years.

3. Christine isn’t quite old enough to vote yet.

She is in her early teen.

4. Fred will be retiring in a couple of years’ time.

He is in his early sixties.

5. My landlady doesn’t look old, but she has grandchildren.

 She is in her early sixties.

6. Mary just remembers the Second World War.

She is in her early sixties.

7. Brenda’s been teaching for 25 years.

She is in her early fifties.

Writing: (page 16)

Q. Write a ‘police description’ of the person you have chosen.

Mr. Pravin Sharma is my best friend. He is in his early twenties. He is about 5 ft 5 inches tall. He is a heavy man of about 62 kg. He has long black curly hair. He has a black complexion. His face is round with wide and brown eyes. His eyebrows are bushy while his nose is long and pointed. He has thin lips and round chin. He has a mole in his right chick. His forehead is broad. He is always well-dressed. He usually wears a gold chain around his neck. He often stammers while speaking.

Composition (page: 20)

1. Intelligence Tests:

Intelligence Tests

            The term, ‘intelligence”, means the mental ability or the mental speed of a person. Intelligence test means that types of test which measures the mental capacity of a person. By asking I Q questions to a person, we can measure his/her intelligence. Sometimes people define intelligence as his ability to remember what he reads or hears. Other people define intelligence as the mental speed of a person or how a person thinks quickly. Intelligence has also relation to our ability to solve the practical problems of our life.

            When we ask I Q questions, some people give answers so quickly, but other think for longer. The same question could be easy for a person but difficult for other. For example the same mathematical question could be easy for a student but difficult for other. It depends on the mental speed of a person. Time plays a vital role in the intelligence tests.  If a person gives answer faster than the other, he is called intelligence. Her only write answer is not counted, but the time as will. We have to give the answer within the due second. Nowadays I Q questions are being asked in different types of test and examinations. If a person gives more and more answer correctly in due time, he is considered intelligence and he gets a job. In quiz contest I Q questions are generally being asked. There are three types of I. Q. questions: verbal, visual and numerical.

            In conclusion, Intelligence tests measure our mental ability and mental speed. By asking I Q. questions, we can measure the mental ability of a person. We can find out hoe clever the person is.

Q. If you were shipwrecked alone on a desert island, which five common objects would you want have with you? Why?

If I were shipwrecked alone on a deserted island, I’d like to want to have the five common objects: a gun, a matchbox, a knife, a tent, and some light clothes.

            I want to keep a light gun with me because it would protect me from the wild animals. It would be also needed to kill eatable animals. A matchbox would be necessary for me to roast the meat of those animals. A knife would be needed to chop the meat to eat and to cut coconuts which would be available in the island. A tent would be needed to be protected from heat and rain. There might be hot weather on the island. So some light clothes would be sufficient for me there.

 

           

 

 

Unit: 3

3.2.  Previous Events:

Rule:

A: Given sentence

B: Why? What had happened?/ What had +Sub +done?

A.     Well, Sub + had + V3 +object, and +Sub +had +v3 + obj.

Have similar conversation of the following remarks.

a) When I saw him two years later I could hardly recognized him.

            A: When I saw him two years later I could hardly recognized him.

            B: Why? What had happened?

            A: Well, he had grown beard, and he had kept long moustache.

b) They sent both men to prison for 20 years.

A: They sent both men to prison for 20 years.

B: Why? What had happened?

A: Well, they had killed a man and robbed his house.

c) The fireman received a medal for bravery.

            A: The fireman received a medal for bravery.

            B: Why? What happened?

            A: Well, he had saved a baby from a burning house and he had saved a lot of property.

d) It was a good thing I checked my bill before I paid it.

A: It was a good thing I checked my bill before I paid it.

            B: Why? What had happened?

            A: Well, the shopkeeper had added extra money and he hadn’t included VAT.

e) When my sister came home, she was crying her eyes out.

A: When my sister came home, she was crying her eyes out.

B: Why? What had happened?

A: Well, she had lost her purse, and my mother had scolded her.

f) I got very angry letter from my bank manager last Friday.

A: I got very angry letter from my bank manager last Friday.

B: Why? What had happened?

A; Well, I hadn’t paid my loan, and I hadn’t informed him anything.

g) My new trousers were ruined when they came out of the washing machine.

A: My new trousers were ruined when they came out of the washing machine.

B: Why? What had happened?

A: Well, the washing machine had been broken, and I had kept it in higher temperature.

h) They came back from their holiday feeling completely refreshed.

A: They came back from their holiday feeling completely refreshed.

B: Why? What had happened?

B: Well, They had been to Pokhara, and they had enjoyed visiting Phewa Lake.

 

3.3 Previous activities and events

Rule:

A: Given Sentence

B: Sub + had been + v4 + obj.

Make the conversation as it is shown in the example.

a) Eventually Richard found a job that suited him

A: Eventually Richard found a job that suited him.

B: He had been looking for a job.

C: He had been applying many places.

D; He had bee studying very hard.

b) When the Johnsons eventually got away on holiday they felt they really deserved it.

A: When the Johnsons eventually got away on holiday they felt they really deserved it.

B: They had been working very hard.

C: They had been visiting Pokhara

D: They had been enjoying together.

C: By the time the climbers reached the top of the mountain, they were exhausted.

A: By the time the climbers reached the top of the mountain, they were exhausted.

B: They had been climbing the mountain.

C: They had been carrying their bags.

D: They hadn’t been eating anything.

d) It was hardly surprising that Anthony fainted.

A: It was hardly surprising that Anthony fainted.

B: She had been suffering from fever.

C: She had been running in the sun.

D: She had been taking medicine.

e) Vivienne sighed with relief

A: Vivienne sighed with relief.

B: She had been working for a long time.

C: She had been facing a problem.

D: She had not been getting leave.

 

3.5. Additional Information: Relative Clause

Who = Person

Where = place

When = time

What = thing

Which = thing/animal

Whose = relation

Whom = possession

Why = reason X

How = quantity X

Sub of the first sentence, + wh word +Part of the 2nd sentence (no repeated sub), + Part of 1st sentence

If there is a preposition with the repeated sub of the second sentence, we should put it before the wh word, when we join the sentences with “which” and “whom”.

1.      Phil was an excellent driver.

Phil’s forehead was covered in sweat.

·         Phil, whose forehead was covered in sweat, was an excellent driver.

2.      Julia hadn’t wanted to come in the first place.

The Admiral had entrusted the papers to Julia.

·         Julia, to whom the Admiral had entrusted the papers, hadn’t wanted to come in the first place.

3.      Alex had closed his eyes.

It had been Alex’s idea to come.

The success of the whole mission depended on Alex.

·         Alex, on whom the success of the whole mission depended, which had been his idea to come, had closed his eyes.

4.      Alex had just taken the gun out of his pocket.

Alex never went anywhere without his gun.

·         Alex, who never went anywhere without his gun, had closed his eyes.

5.      The dog was sitting facing the back window.

The dog loved travelling in fast car.

·         The dog, which loved travelling in fast car, was sitting facing the back window.

6.      The truck was gaining on them all the time.

They were trying so desperately to escape from the truck.

A light machinegun was clearly visible on the truck.

·         The truck, on which a light machine gun was clearly visible, from where they were trying so desperately to escape, was gaining on them all the time.

 

3.6 Background Information

Add an appropriate relative clause to these sentences.

1. I couldn’t wait to get back to Venice,…….

I couldn’t wait to get back to Venice, where Neelam had been waiting for me.

2. At last they managed to repair the telephone……

            At last they managed to repair the telephone, which had been disconnected.

3. The teacher,…………. , turned round suddenly.

The teacher, who was writing on the blackboard, turned round suddenly.

4. I eventually found the letter, ………., in my jacket pocket.

I eventually found the letter, which my friend had written to me, in my jacket pocket.

5. When I came back, I found that my car, …………, had disappeared.

When I came back, I found that my car, which I had parked outside, had disappeared.

6. We were all very grateful to Richard, ……….

We were all very grateful to Richard, who had helped us.

Composition (page: 30)

1. Write a letter to a newspaper saying how you fell about the growing use of computer in our daily live.

Adarshnagar,

Nepalgunj

4th Jan, 2012

The Editor,

The Kathmandu Post

Katmandu

Sir,

I would be grateful if my article about the growing use of computer in our daily lives will be published in your reputed newspaper. I hope millions of readers will advantage from this article.

Modern science has given many things tot us. Computer is one of the greatest inventions of modern science. It has made our life easier and faster. We can’t imagine the modern world without computer. It is the fastest means of communication as will. The internet and email has changed the world into a global village. Computer has become essential part of human life in the present world. Consequence, the users have been increasing day by day. Whether one is doing official or personal work, one prefers to use computer life, without computer, has become almost unimaginable. No doubt computer makes our task easier; it enables people to work efficiently and it prevents people from working in weather extremes. Undoubtedly it has made communication easer efficient and less time consuming. Nevertheless, computer does have reverse side too. Excess use of computer results into the loss of eyesight in the long run. Computer brings sex and violence in screen. Which result into the increment of sex violence. Teenagers utilize computer in such a way that their mind get corrupted and they cross social norms and values. Eventually such deeds are sure to bring social disorder. Moreover it makes people lazy and unsocial as they wish to spend much of their time with computer

If we use the computer in a proper way, it has surely more advantages than disadvantages. It is the boon of modern science.

Sincerely Yours

Birat Sapkota

 

 

2. Write an essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer.

                                                            Advantages and disadvantages of computer

Modern science has given many things to us. Computer is one of the greatest inventions of modern science. It has made our life easier and faster. We can’t imagine the modern world without computer. It is the fastest means of communication as will. The internet and email has changed the world into a global village.

There are many advantages of computer. We can use for entertainment information and as a means of communication. We can write emails and we can download important information from internet. We can watch videos, film and songs on it. We can save data on it. It reduces the costs in the office for accountants. It has become essential part of human life in the present world. The users have been increasing day by day. Computers are useful in business, in education and home. The use of computer has reduced time span of many works. Any works can be done sitting in a place and pressing few keys. It has enabled people to know happenings of the world shortly after it happens. Computer has made it easier for people to communicate in addition to saving time and money. The use of computer in education sector has brought changes in the age-old teaching materials. As in business and education computer is useful at home. Leisure time of family members does not become burden.

Computer has disadvantages as will. Due to use of computer unemployment problem has increased as computer can perform the duty that might need nearly six to seven workers. Unemployment is likely to result into crimes. Continuous work with computer causes loss of eyesight in the long run. Internet, which is widely used to see pornographic scenes, corrupts the mind of teenagers. Due to it, sex- violence increases rapidly. Computer has direct impact on culture of any nation. The high-tech crimes like hacking banks and important documents become possible due to computer. Virus is also a problem of it. If we put all the records on computer, if the file is corrupted with virus, all the record becomes useless. The social networking webs like Facebook and Twitter have created a kind of crazy mentality among teenagers.

In conclusion, if we use computer in a proper way it has more advantages than disadvantages. It is the boon of the modern science.

 

 

Unit: 4

4.2 Verbs and Adjectives

Q. Write the adjectival form of the verbs below.

Rule: 1. Remember that only three verbs could be changed into adjective by adding “ive”

            2. All the other verbs should be made into adjectives by adding “ing”.

            3. Beware! You should not put the letter “e” at the end of the word while adding “ing”.

            4. Sometimes we should write double the last letter whiled adding “ing” as in “upsetting”.

            5. “Offend”, the word becomes “offensive”

IVE

Verbs                          Adjectives

Impress                        impressive

*offend                         offensive

attract                           attractive

ING

Verbs                         Adjectives                  

excite                            exciting

interest                         interesting

irritate                          irritating

confuse                         confusing

shock                            shocking

*upset                           upsetting

surprise                        surprising

astonish                        astonishing

amuse                          amusing

 

 

4.2. Talk about the people and things below.

Structure:

A: What do you think of + given?

B: Oh, I find + given +  adj.

C: Yes, + given + obj (V1/V5) + me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get + v3 + when people talk about + given.

1.      World Cup football.

A: What do you think of the World Cup football?

B: Oh, I find the World Cup football really exciting.

C: Yes, the World Cup football excites me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get terribly excited when people talk about the world cup football.

2.      People who speak several languages.

A: What do you think of the people who speak several languages?

B: Oh, I find the people who speak several languages really amazing.

C: Yes, the people who speak several languages amaze me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get very much amazed when people talks about them.

3.      People who talk about themselves.

A: What do you think of the people who talk about themselves?

B: Oh, I find the people who talk about themselves really annoying.

C: Yes, the people who talks about themselves annoy me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get annoyed when people talk about people who talk about themselves.

4.      People with dirty fingernails.

A: What do you think of the people with dirty fingernails?

B: Oh, I find the people with dirty fingernails really disgusting.

C: Yes, people with dirty fingernails disgust me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get disgusted when people talk about people with dirty fingernails.

5.      slim people

A: What do you think of slim people?

B: Oh, I find slim people attractive.

C: Yes, slim people attract me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get attracted when people talk about slim people.

6.      horror films

A: What do you think of horror films?

B: Oh, I find horror films terrifying.

C: Yes, horror films terrify me, too.

D: Yes, I agree. I get terrified when people talk about horror films.

 

4.3 Your Own Attitudes

 Write paragraph describing each of the followings. a. beggars, b. nudist

Beggars

Beggars really annoy me. They occupy any place they like, especially crowd places. It not only hinders the beauty of the city but also destroys the fame of the city. Police personals have to chase them time and again. This scene really disturbs any rational being. I find beggars irritating. They cling to the people and beg as if they are recently born puppies. Sometime they disturb tourists by begging. They defame Nepalese people’s identity. Moreover they terrify me.

Nudists

Nudists shock me very much, as they do not keep to social codes. Human beings are regarded as the most developed as they can live with the code established by the society codes is to put on clothes. As nudists do not think it is necessary to put on clothes. I find them uncivilized. I think they are the beasts in human form. I find embarrassing. When walking with relatives their appearance compels me to hide my face. Fathers walking with their daughters should hide their face worth shame. I get terrified with nudists, as they are likely to create disorder in society.

 

4.4. If there is one thing

Rules:

1.      Sentences begins with People = [If there is one thing + that (attitude)s  me + its + people who…]

2.      Sentences begin with you =    [If there is one thing + I (attitude) + its people who…….]

Annoy me, upset me, make me angry,

I hate, I detest, I loathe

Q. Rewrite the following sentences using ‘If there is one thing……’

1. People who smoke in restaurants annoy me.

If there is one thing that annoys me it’s people who smoke in restaurants.

2. People who are cruel to animals upset me.

If there is one thing that upsets me it’s people who are cruel to animals.

3. People who break promises make me angry.

If there is one thing that makes me angry it’s people who break promises.

4. I hate people who smoke in restaurants.

If there is one thing I hate it’s people who smoke in restaurants.

5. I detest people who interrupt when I am speaking.

If there is one thing I detest it’s people who interrupt when I am speaking.

6. I loathe people who ring me up early in the morning.

If there is one thing I loathe it’s people who ring me up early in the morning.

 

4.7 Judging character

How would you describe a person who……

1. gives away lots of money                           = generous

2. never buys you a drink                               = mean/stingy

3. easily loses his temper                                = bad-tempered/hot-tempered

4. never loses his temper                                = calm

5. helps other people                                       =helpful

6. only thinks about himself                            = selfish

7. jokes about everything                               = cheerful/funny

8. doesn’t joke about anything                       = serious

9. expects good things to happen                   = optimistic

10. expects bad things to happen                   = pessimistic

11. believes whatever you tell him                 = gullible

12. doubts what you tell him                          = skeptical

13. worries about what people think              = sensitive

14. doesn’t care what people think                = insensitive

15. likes going to parties                                = sociable/outgoing

16. doesn’t like going to parties                     = shy/ reserved

17. lets people down                                       = unreliable

18. doesn’t let people down                            = reliable

19. has a high opinion himself                                    = vain

20. doesn’t boast                                             = modest                     

 

 

 

Unit: 5

5.1 How long….

Rules:

1. Activities: if the action is not complete and the actor could not show his achievement, that is activity.

            Question: How long did + sub + v1 +obj + for?

            Prepositions:    Period of time = for

                                    Point of time = until

2. Achievement: If the action is complete and the actor could show his/her achievement what he/she had done, that is achievement.

            Question: How long did it take + sub (objective form) + to + v1 + obj?      

[he = him, she = her, they = them, I = you]

            Prepositions:    Period of time = in

                                    Point of time = by

Practice:

a)      Ask the question with “How long……?”

b)      Answer it, using the words in brackets.

1.They talked on the telephone. (20 minutes)

               How long did they talk on the telephone for?

               They talked on the telephone for 20 minutes.

2. She painted the bathroom ceiling. (6 o’ clock)

               How did it take her to paint the bathroom ceiling?

               She painted the bathroom ceiling by 6 o’ clock.

3. We played golf on Sunday. (dusk)

               How long did you play golf on Sunday for?

               We played golf on Sunday until dusk.

4. He mowed the lawn.(ten minutes)

               How long did it take him to mow the lawn?

               He mowed the lawn in ten mi mutes.

5. I wrote all my letters. (lunchtime)

               How long did it take you to write all your letters?

               I wrote all my letters by lunchtime.

6. We had to change the wheel. (five minutes)

               How long did it take you to change the wheel?

               We had to change the wheel in five minutes.

7. He watched television. (late movie came on)

               How long did he watch television for?

               He watched television until late movie came on.

8. I read the whole War and Peace. (two weeks)

               How long did it take you to read the whole War and piece?

               I read the whole War and Peace in two weeks.

9. She did some piano practice. (bedtime)

               How long did she do some piano practice for?

               She did some piano practice until bedtime.

10.  She waited at the bus top. (ages)

               How long did she wait at the bus stop for?

               She waited at the bus stop for ages.

 

5.3 Longer Than You Expected

Rules:

1.      Result in negative past + for/until + (Time)

2.      It was + (time) + before + result in positive past.

or

Sub + didn’t + v1 + object + for/until + (Time)

It was + (time) + before + Sub + v2 + obj.

Complete the sentences.

1. I wrote to my mother by airmail, but in fact….. ( two weeks)

               She didn’t get the letter for two weeks.

               It was two weeks before the letter reached her.

2. I intended to have an early night but as it happened …. (midnight)

               I didn’t get to sleep till midnight.

               It was midnight before I got to sleep.

3. I said he could borrow the record for a few days, but  …(six week)

               He didn’t give it back for six weeks.

               It was six weeks before he gave it back to me.

4. It was supposed to be a short meeting, but…. (three hours)

               It didn’t finish for three hours.

               It was three hours before it finished.

5. She set us some homework for Monday, but as I was away for the weekend…. (Tuesday)

               I didn’t finish it till Tuesday.

               It was Tuesday before I finished it.

6. He was invited to dinner but typically….. (after 9 o’clock)

               He didn’t arrive till after 9 o’ clock.

               It was 9 o’ clock before he arrived.

7. The job was supposed to take three weeks, but unfortunately, …….(nearly two months)

      They didn’t finish it for nearly two months.

      It was nearly two months before they finished it.

Writing (page 49)

 

Q.Write a short article for a magazine entitled ‘keeping a dog in a flat’

10th March,

 2010.The Kathmandu Post

Keeping a Dog in a Flat’

            People have been keeping dogs from ancient time. Dog is taken as a friend of human beings. They are kept as if our family members. It is an obedient animal. It loves its master either the master is rich or poor. It is said that to keep as dog in a flat is hundred times better than to keep a watchman in our house. A watchman may deceive us but a dog never cheats us. It guards our house day and nights without any selfish desire. It keeps the thief away from our house. Nowadays people keep dogs in their flat not only for security of their house but also for their interest to keep pet small dogs. With its keen sense of smell an hearing, dogs keep our house safe.

Keeping a dog in a flat is very difficult job though numerous prefer to do it. One who desires for it at least should have knowledge of what, how and why. Otherwise, keeping a dog in a flat is a troublesome job.
The owner should have knowledge on what he has to do. The first essential task is to teach the puppy about the time and place of doing excretion in teaching. Training is however not all in all. A good owner should know the way to talking care of dog. Dogs usually like flesh, so they should be fed with meat. Dogs should be vaccinated against various diseases. Otherwise they might cause rabies, which is very dangerous. It keeps our house safe from burglars and unwanted visitors. It is really useful for us.

Composition (Page 51)

Caricature

Caricature

            “Caricature”, the word means exaggeration of something. It is a kind of art to distort physical features of a person or an object. Artists create caricature basically with two purposes: to make us to laugh and to inform those who have done mistakes for reformation. A cartoon or caricature tells many things easily with in a second than in our words. Nowadays we see basically our political leaders become the subject matter of caricatures.

            On our daily newspapers and magazines, we see cartoons of our corrupted leaders as will as the high ranked officials who have done corruptions and illegal works. People laugh at their cartoons. In Nepal there is the caricature festival that is cow festival or Gai Jatra.  At that time, many artists release albums, songs and visual videos for the purpose of satire and laughing. At that time we find magazines with full of cartoons. People get the information that the person is not of having good nature. The culture of cartoon or caricature is a common culture in the world. It could be found in every country and their aim is to make us laugh and to give information. The comedy artists also do caricatures of our political leaders in many comedy programs on televisions. They speak, dress and walk as if the corrupted leaders.

            In conclusion, caricature means the cartoons of our newspapers and magazines. To satire over the corrupted person and their wrong works, the artists make caricatures. It can convey a lot of message with a small picture of a caricature.

Q. Can tell you what people’s characters are like from their physical appearance?

 It is said that face is the reflection of his/her personality and character. People’s character can be determined, to some extent, from their physical appearances. Many people find it impossible thing too but I don’t suppose so. After observing a person’s facial appearance minutely, I can determine nature of the person. If the person’s noise is crooked, such person is egotistical. S\he has high opinion about him\her. Other people for them are nothing in comparison to themselves. People with broad forehead are generally thoughtful. They have the tendency of thinking seriously before they do any work. They like to get involved in the observation of natural beauty. They are intellectual. Quick thinking and imaginative, but wish to know excessively about others people’s activities. People having double chin are skeptical. People who put clothes carelessly never worry about what other think about them. Such people are interested only in merrymaking and enjoyment. Quite contrarily, people who always wear clean clothes are interested in showing their superiority. They have high opinion about themselves. Nevertheless exception works in some cases.

 

 

 

Unit: 6

6.1 Reported Speech

To change direct speech into indirect:

1. Change in RV

                        Said = said that

                        Said to = told

            If it is question:

                        Said/said to = asked

            Imperative sentences:

                        Said/said to =ordered, requested, commanded

2. Changes in RS

            1. We should not use comma and inverted comma in the indirect speech

 

First Person (I, We) = Subject

Second person (you) = Object

Third person (He, she, it, they) = no change

 

            2.  Pronoun Change:

                       

                                               

            3. Tense Change:

                        a) Present = Past tense

                                    V1/V5                                      = V2

                                    Is/am/are+V4               = Was/were + V4

                                    Has/have + v3             = had + V3

                                    Has/have + been + V4             = had + been +V4

                        b) Past Tense

                                    V2                   = had +V3

                                    Was were + V4 = had been + V4

                        c) Future Tense:

                                    Shall/ will = Should/would

                        d) Model Auxiliary:

                                    May = might

                                    Can = could

            4. Time Adverbials change

                        Today = that day

                        Tomorrow = the next day

                        Yesterday = the day before

                        Here = there

                        Come = go

                        These =those

                        This = that

                        Ago = before

Tonight = that night

Now = then

Hence = thence

Thus = so

            5. How to change Wh-questins into indirect?

                        [ RV + Wh-word + sub + aux + verb + obj.]

                                    We shoud change pronoun and tense.

                                    We should put subject before aux.

            6. How to change yes/no questions into indirect?

                        [ Rv + if/ whether + sub + aux +verb + obj .]

                                    We should use if/whether in yes no question.

                                    We should change the position of aux and subject.

            7. How to change imperative sentences?

                        Positive = to

                        Negative =not to.

                       Example:         He said to me, “Don’t smoke”.

                                                 He told me not to smoke./ He suggested me not to smoke.

6.1 Practice

Change the following sentences into indirect speech.

 

Rules: (only for this exercise)

He said that……. (in every sentences)

I=he, we=they, present=past, will =would

 

 

 

 

                                     

 

 

1. ‘I’m from Melbourne.’

                        He said that he was from Melbourne.

            2. ‘I like it here.’

                        He said that he liked it there.

            3. ‘I don’t earn much money.’

                        He said that he didn’t earn much money.

            4. ‘I’ve got a cousin in America.’

                        He said that he had got a cousin in America.

            5. ‘I’ll be staying in New York for a month.’

                        He said that he would be staying in New York for a month.

            6. ‘I’ll go to Canada too if I have time.’

                        He said that he would go to Canada too if he had time.

            7. ‘I’ve been to all art galleries in London.’

                        He said that he had been to all art galleries in London.

            8. ‘I’ve been sleeping in friend’s flat’

                        He said that he had been sleeping in friend’s flat.

 

Q. Report these remarks made by ministers.

1. ‘We are going to do all we can to help industry.’

            He said that they were going to do all they could to help industry.

2. ‘Unemployment figures have been falling for several months.’

            He said that unemployment figures had been falling for several months.

3. ‘The last government didn’t do anything about unemployment.’

            He said that the last government hadn’t done anything about unemployment.

4. ‘These proposals are being considered carefully.’

            He said that those proposals were being considered very carefully.

5. ‘Things won’t get better unless we work together.’

            He said that things wouldn’t get better unless they worked together.

6. ‘I fully support the Prime Minister’s views.’

            He said that he fully supported the Prime Minister’s view.

7. ‘I am sure we will win the next election.’

            He said that he was sure they would win the next election.

8. ‘I can’t say any more until I have talked to the Prime Minister.’

            He said that he couldn’t say any more until he had talked to the Prime Minister.                   

 

6.2. Conflating Reports.

            Rule : Opposite Past.

            To make conflicting, we should make the statement opposite

            Then we should change the statements into past tense for reporting.

1. I’m starving. I could eat a horse.

            But you told me just now you weren’t hungry

2. Oh looks. It is raining.

            What? But they said on the weather forecast it was going to be sunny.

3. The rent is £25 a week.

            But when I spoke you earlier you said it was only  £15 a week.

4. Can I have one of your cigarettes?

            But I thought you had given up smoking.

5. Sorry. This is the private beach. Members only.

            But I was told anyone could bathe here.

6. I’d love to come, but I have got this essay to finish.

            What? I thought you said you were free.

7. Didn’t you get me a ticket?

            No, I didn’t realize you wanted to come.

6.4. Choose appropriate verb from the list, report the remarks below. Begins with the words given.

            Admit, explain, assure, deny, point out, claim, insist, warn, accuse.

1. ‘You are under no obligation to buy the drill if you don’t like it.’

            The salesman assured Mr. Lock that he was no under obligation to buy the drill if he didn’t like it.

2. ‘I don’t want the drill, because it doesn’t work.’

            Mr Lock explained that he didn’t want the drill.

3. ‘The same drill can be bought locally for £ 10 less.’

            Mr Lock pointed out that the same drill could be bought locally for £ 10 less.

4. ‘You broke the drill by using wrongly, and you still owe us £ 45.’

Bargain Electrics claimed that he had broken the drill by using it wrongly, and that he still owed them £ 45.

5. ‘I didn’t break the drill”

            Mr Lock denied that he had broken the drill.

6. ‘The drill reached you in perfect condition.’

            The Managing Director insisted that the drill had reached him in perfect condition.

7. ‘If you do not pay the balance within seven days, we will have to take legal action.’

            The Managing director warned him that if he didn’t pay the balance within seven days, they             would have to take the legal action.

8. ‘You are interfering in a private matter.’

            The Sales Manager accused them of interfering in a private matter.

9. “Mr. Lock has been right all along – the drill was wrongly assembled in the factory.

The Managing director admitted that Mr. Lock had been right all along and that the drill had been wrongly assembled in the factory.

Composition (page: 61)

                                                Tourists

            A tourist is a person who leaves his house for at least 24 hours to visit new places. There are two types of tourists: internal tourists, and external tourists. Internal tourists are those who visit within their national border for entertainment and for holidays. External tourists are those who leave their national border and they visit strange places away from their homeland. For examples, a man goes from Nepalgunj to pokhara to see Phewa Lake and Machhapuchhre, he is a internal tourist. If a person comes from the USA to see mt Everest and goes to Namche Bazaar, he is the external tourist.

            Tourism is also called the greatest smokeless industry of the world. Every country wants to attract more and more tourists because they are the sources of foreign currency. Due to the tourists many people get jobs as in hotels, trekking agencies, travel agencies and so on. It increases employment and National income. In terms of Nepal, nature has given every beautiful thing for the attraction of the tourists. But we don’t have the good policy and facilities for the tourists. Government should make proper planning to attract more and more tourists. Let’s hope Nepal will be the best destination for the attraction of the tourists.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 7

How to make V1

            Is         = be

            Are      = be

            V5       =V1

            Has      = have

            Have    = have

            V2       = have + V3

            Was     = have been

            Were    = have +V3

            Had     =had been

 

7.1. Must, Can’t, May/Might

Rules:

Must  =  I am sure

            Sub + must + V1 + Obj.

Can’t =            I am Sure + not

            Sub + can’t + V1 + Obj.

Must (P) & Can’t (N)

Sure, certain, confirm, obviously, convince

May/might

Perhaps, maybe, it is possible, in future, I think, probably

 

May/might = Perhaps

            Sub + may/Might +V1 + Obj.

Perhaps + not

May not/Might not

 

 

7.1 Change the sentences below using must, can’t may/might

1. I’m sure he is working.

            He must be working.

2. Perhaps he is going to ask me.

            He might be going to ask me.

3. I’m sure he is not French.

            He can’t be French.

4. I’m sure they stole the money.

            They must have stolen the money.

5. Perhaps he was listening.

            He might have been listening.

6. I’m sure she was not at work.

            She can’t have been at work.

7. Perhaps he went home.

            He might have gone home.

8. Perhaps she is not coming.

            She might not be coming.

9. I’m sure they weren’t camping.

            They can’t have been camping.

10. Perhaps they haven’t finished.

            They might not have finished.

11. Perhaps he was tired.      

            He might have been tired.

12. I’m sure she was feeling ill.

            She must have been feeling ill.

13. I’m sure the snow’s melted.

            The snow must have melted.

14. I’m sure they haven’t been waiting long.

            They can’t have been waiting long.

7.2 Working it out

Rule: Match first Side A questions with Side A answers.

            If it has positive reply, use MUST and if it gives negative reply use CAN’T with the questions.

            Then add the Side B answers with BECAUSE.

[Structure: Sub + must/can’t + V1 + obj       + because +      Side B snswer.]

1. Did he go abroad?             =          He hasn’t got passport.

He can’t have gone abroad because he hasn’t got a passport.

2. Has he been working hard?                       =          He looks exhausted.

He can’t have been working hard because he looks exhausted.

3. Is he redecorating his house?         =          He had it done only a month ago.

            He can’t be redecorating his house because he had it done only a month ago.

4. Is he an Indian?                              =          He has got fair hair.

            He can’t be an Indian because he has got fair hair.

5. Has the meat gone off?                  =          It smells terrible.

            The meat must have gone off because it smells terrible.

6. Is he talking on the phone?                        =          The line’s engaged.

            He can’t be talking on the phone because the line’s engaged.

7. Is the table an antique?                  =          It only cost him £15.

            The table can’t be antique because it only cost him £15.

8. Is it his birthday?                           =          He got a lot of post this morning.

            It must be his birthday because he got a lot of posts this morning.

9. Has he been made redundant?       =          He was only promoted last week.

            He can’t have been made redundant because he was only promoted last week.

 

Q. Continue the sentences below with a deduction.

Rules:

A:        given sentence

B:         So + sub + must + V1 +obj.

            So + sub + can’t + V1 + obj.

1. He has got a lovely suntan.

            So he can’t be living indoors.

            So he must have been sunbathing.

2. She is driving a Mercedes.

            So she can’t be poor.

            So she must be very rich.

3. They didn’t come to the party.

            So they can’t have been free.

            So they must have been very busy.

4. He isn’t wearing a uniform.

            So he can’t be going to school.

            So he must be going to market.

5. She speaks excellent French.

            So she must be French

            So she can’t be Nepali.

6. I can hear music next door.

            So they must be dancing.

            So they can’t be reading.

 

 

 

Unit: 8

8.1 Good and Bad Effects

Choose verbs from the list and write sentences which have been the same meaning as those below. Begin with the words given.

Allow, enable, encourage, force, stop, prevent, discourage, save, make it easier, make it more difficult

1.      When they took the drug, it was more difficult for them to think rationally.

The drug made it more difficult them to think rationally.

2.      When they took the drug, they didn’t worry about the future.

The drug stopped them to worry about the future.

3.      When they took the drug they were able to forget all their problems.

The drug enabled them to forget all their problems.

4.      When they took the drug they could relax and enjoy themselves more easily.

The drug made it easier them to relax and enjoy themselves more easily.

5.      Although there was a shortage of food, people still wanted to take the drug.

Even the food shortage didn’t discourage them from taking the drug.

6.      Because of the economic crisis, the government had to take some decisive action.

The economic crisis forced the government to take some decisive action.

7.      After the new law was introduced, people still took the drug.

The new law didn’t prevent them from taking the drug.

8.      After the new law was introduced, people wanted to take the drug even more.

The new law encouraged them to take the drug even more.

9.      When the drug was exported, the Islanders didn’t have to work more than one day a week.

Exporting the drug saved the Islander from having to work more than one day a week.

10.  When the drug was exported, they were able to sit in the sun all; day long.

This allowed them to sit in the sun all day long.

 

 

8.4.   Course of action.

Q. Change the suggestions below using ought to, ought not to, might as swill or there is no point in.

            Rules:

            Ought to = it should be done.

            Ought not to = it shouldn’t be done.

            Might as well = it is better to do but not compulsion.

            There is no point in = it is useless to do.

[Sub + ought to/ought not to/ might as well + V1 + object. ] we need not to put second sentence.

[There is no point in + V4 + obj]

1. Don’t take your children to see that film – it will frighten them.

You ought not to take your children to see that film.

2.  Let’s not sell it – it’s not worth anything anyway.

There is no point in selling it.

3. Why don’t we give it away – it is not worth anything anyway.

                        We might as well give it away.

4. Don’t ask him – he doesn’t speak English.

                        There is no point in asking him.

5. Why don’t you take a pullover – you have got plenty of room in your case.

                        You might as will take a pullover.

6. Why don’t you take a pullover – it might turn cold.

                        You ought to take a pullover.

7. Lets not talk about it now – the children are listening.

                        We ought not to talk about it now.

8. Let’s not argue about nit now – that won’t solve the problem.

                        There is no point in arguing about it.

8.5. Advising on choice

Rules:

A: Given sentence

B: No, There is no point in/it is not worth + V4 +obj – Reason. (Why is it useless?)

C: Yes, sub might as well + V1 (what is better to do)

1.      Do you think I should keep all these old clothes?

A: Do you think I should keep all these old clothes?

B: No, there is no point in keeping all these old clothes – they are too dirty.

C: Yes, you might as well give them to a beggar.

2.  What shall we do with the money? Invest it?

A; What shall we do with the money? Invest it?

B: No, there is no point in investing it – it is risky.

C: Yes, you might as well deposit it in the bank.

3. Should I send this letter first class?

            A: Should I send this letter first class?

            B: No, There is no point in sending this letter first class – it is not so important letter.

            C: Yes, we might as will send it to the second class.

4. Let’s get a bigger washing machine.

            A: Let’s get a bigger washing machine.

            B: No, there is no point in getting a bigger one – it is too expensive.

            C: Yes, we might as well get a smaller one.

5. May be we ought to keep some of the ice cream for Mary.

A: May be we ought to keep some of the ice cream for Mary.

B: No, there is no point in keeping it for Mary – she won’t come.

C: Yes, we might as well eat them up.

6. Do you think we should go to school today?

            A: Do you think we should go to school today?

            B: No, there is no point in going to school today – it is a holiday today.

            C; Yes, we might as will go to cinema.

7. I think I will make a bookcase.

            A: I think I will make a bookcase.

            B: No, there is no point in making a bookcase – you have a few books.

            C: Yes, you might as well make a table.

 

 

 

Unit: 9

9.1 Information Questions.

Rules:

1.  What = for things What kind of …..? What size of….? What colour……?

            How = for quantity     How many……..? How much……?

            Which = for things      Which + object…………?

            Whose = for relationship/ possession

2. We have to find out the “common name” of the three objects.

3. We should make the question on the same question in which it is given.

4. we should not put the part of answer.

Structure:  [ Wh-word + common name + aux +sub + verb + obj?]

1. Are you having tomato/chicken/mushroom soup today?

            What soup are we having today?

2. Was it raining/foggy/ cold when you were in London?

            How was the weather when you were in London?

3. Are you planning to use your father’s car/Tony’s car/my car?

            Whose car are you planning to use?

4. Are you going to boil/fry/scramble those eggs?

            How are you cooking those eggs? /What are you going to do with those eggs?

5. Is it 500 miles/1000 miles/a long way is London from here?

            How far is London from here?

6. Would you like to do manual/office/outdoor work?

            What kind of work would you like to do?

7. Are you there four/five /six of you?

            How many of you are there?

8. I hear he has hurt his leg. Has he broken/bruised/cut it/

            What has he done to his leg?

9. Are you Margaret’s cousin/brother/nephew?

            What is the relation between you and Margaret?

10. Is the cinema opposite/next to/round the corner from the station?

            Where is the cinema from the station? /What direction is the cinema from the station?

11. Have you given away/sold/burnt my old football boots?

            What have you done with my old football boots?

12. Did you use half inch/one-inch/three-quarter-inch screws?

            What size screw did you use?

Q. Look at the set of words below. And (a) decide what each set has in common (b) ask the information question about it?

Rules:

a)      Put the common name of three objects.

b)      Make a wh-question as your own.       

1.      arson/blackmail/assault

a) Crime                       b) What crime did he commit?

 2. stew/grill/roast

            a) way of cooking        b) How shall I cook the meat?

  3. major/sergeant/corporal   

            a) rank                         b) What rank was he promoted to?

4.   primary/grammar/comprehensive

            a) kind of school         b) What kind of school they are at?

5. Ford/Volkswagen/Citroen

            a) brand of car             b) What kind of car are you buying?

6. rubber/leather/plastic

            a) material                    b) What material is used in your shoes?

7. A4/foolscape/quarto

            a) size of paper                        b) What size of paper do you want?

8. Crimson/scarlet/maroon

            a) shade of red colour  b) What shade of red is in her dress?

9. rare/medium/ well done

            a) Way of doing          b) How would you like your steak done?

10. A/B/C

            a) grade                        b) What grade did he get in the test?

9.3   Indirect questions

Rule:

1.      Put the half part of the given answer first.

2.      Then, put “if” if there is yes/no question.

3.      Put the same Wh-word if it is wh question.

4.      Change the position of aux and subject, but don’t change tenses except no 4.

5.      If there are do/does/did, don’t write them but change the verbs V1/V5/V2 respectively.  

6.      Put question marks (?) or full stop (.) as it is given.

Rewrite the following questions into indirect forms.

1. What time did you wake up this morning?

Can you remember what time you woke up this morning?                                                                                                                                                             

2. How much do colour TVs costs these days?

            Have you any idea how much colour TVs cost these days?

3. What time does the film starts?

            I wonder what time the film starts.

4. Was he alone?

            Did you notice if he had been alone.

5. When are they getting married?

            I am longing to know when they are getting married.

6. Did I lock the front door?

            Do you remember if I locked the front door?

7. Has the train left?

            Have you found out the train has left?

8. What colour curtains did they buy?

            Do you know what colour curtains they bought?

 

9.2 Getting further information

Write short conversation.

1. My sister got engaged last week.

            A: My sister got engaged last week.

            B: Really? Who did she et engaged to?

            A: She is engaged to a doctor.

            B: But what should I give to her as a gift?

2. He died suddenly at the age of 35.

A: He died suddenly at the age of 35.

B: Did he? What did he die of?

A; He died of cancer.

A: Wasn’t he taken to hospital?

3. I’m going to wrap those Christmas present.

            A: I’m going to wrap those Christmas present.

            B: Oh, are you? What are you going to wrap them in?

            A: I am going to wrap them in a shining paper.

            B: Who are you going to present them to?

4. I’m sure John is in love?

            A: I’m sure John is in love?

            B: Really? Who is John in love with?

            A: He is in love with Neelam.

            B: Will he marry her?

5. Can I borrow your pen knife for a moment?

            A: Can I borrow your pen knife for a moment?

            B: Oh. Sure. Why do you need it?

            A: I want to peel potatoes.

            B: Can’t you buy a new one?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 10

 

10.1 I wish/If only

            1. I wish/if only is used to express our desire.

            2. Wish can be expressed in three ways: 1) Would   2) could           3)   past tense

                        a) Would

                                    To express hope for help from others, we can use “would.”

                                    [ I wish someone would + V1 + me + Obj.]

                        b) Could

                                    To express the self hope to do something, we can use “could”

                                    [ I wish I could + V1 + obj.]

                        c) Past tense

                                    To express the hope of the different situation than the present, we use past tense.

                                    [ I wish + opposite Past.]

We have to change the sentence into negative to positive or positive to negative, or directly opposite of the given sentence. Then we have to change it into past.

 

Q. Make sentences with I wish/if only, using a) would, b) could, c) the past tense.

            1. It is raining.

                        I wish someone would give me an umbrella.

                        I wish I could buy a rain coat.

                        I wish it was sunny.

            2. You are lonely

                        I wish someone would come to help me.

                        I wish I could contact my friend.

                        I wish I were with some friends.

            3. You are ill in bed.

                        I wish someone would bring me some medicine.

                        I wish I could go to the hospital.

                        I wish I was healthy.

            4. Your car has broken down.

                        I wish someone would come to help me.

                        I wish I could repair it myself.

                        I wish I had anew car.

            5. You are short of money.

                        I wish someone would lend me some money.

                        I wish I could earn enough money.

                        I wish I was wealthy.

10.5 Feeling sorry for yourself.

            Rules: I wish/if only + I had +V3 +Obj

                        I shouldn’t + have +V3 +Obj.

Q. What might you regret in these situations, using I wish../If only.. or I shouldn’t ..?

1. You are suffering from sunstroke.

            I wish I had taken an umbrella with me.

            I shouldn’t have stayed in the sun.

2. War has suddenly broken out and you’re stuck in your hotel room.

            I wish I had stayed at home.

            I shouldn’t have come here.

3. Your house has burnt down.

            I wish I had called the fire brigade.

            I shouldn’t have left the burning candle.

4. You feel seasick.

            I wish I hade travelled by Plane.

            I shouldn’t have travelled by the ship.

5. You are short of sleep.

            I Wish I had gone to bed earlier.

            I shouldn’t have watched the film all night.

6. Someone has just refused to marry you.

            I wish I had not proposed her.

            I shouldn’t have liked her.

7. You are stuck half way up a mountain in fog.

            I wish I had listened to the weather forecast.

            I shouldn’t have climbed in this season.

Composition (page: 104)

Q. Tell the story of a dream you have had.

            Last Saturday night, I saw a strange dream. I couldn’t say why I saw this fearful dream and what unfulfilled desire made me to see this dream.

            In my dream I was alone in a jungle. It was a dense forest. It was so beautiful and green that I was charmed by the beauty of it. The flowers were blossomed and the fountains were flowing in the forest. I was waiting for my friend there. The cuckoo’s sweet song had attracted me much. There was spring season around there.        

            I was waiting my friend. A black figure was coming towards me. At first I thought it was my friend, but later I know that he was neither a man nor an animal. It was a ghost. It had longer hair and huge body. It had longer claws and teeth. Its face was covered with long dark hair and it was laughing heavily. I was afraid with it and tried to escape from there, but I couldn’t run. The ghost laughed heavily and caught my waist with its single hand and holds me up in the air. It tried to chew my head into its cave-like mouth. When it put my head into its mouth, I suddenly woke up in my bed in my room.  I found my pillow had made uneasy to sleep. I was trembling with fear and I couldn’t sleep till the night. It was my strange dream I had seen last night.

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 11

11.  1. When

Rules:

            When is used with the past tense.

            1. When + simple past, + simple past.

                        When + [sub+V2 + obj], + [Sub +V2 + Obj]

[if there is no gap between two events, or the second action is happened due to the reaction of the first event.]

            2. When + simple past, + past perfect

                        When + [sub +  had + V3 + obj], + [Sub + V2 + Obj]

[If there is gap between two events, or the second event is happened when the first action is finished]

3. We should not write ‘and’ or ‘but’ between two clauses. We should put comma (,) between them.

4. If there is no subject in the second clause we have to put the subject of the first clause.

Q. Change the following sentences using “When” instead of ‘and’ or ‘but’.

1. She peeled the banana and gave it to the baby.

            When she had peeled the banana, she gave it to the baby.

2. I looked in the fridge and found some sausages.

            When I looked in the fridge, I found some sausages.

3. The security man searched our hand baggage and we boarded the plane.

            When the security men had searched our hand baggage, we boarded the plane.

4. He kicked the dog and it barked.

            When he kicked the dog, it barked.

5. I went to the duty free shop and bought a cartoon of Gauloises.

            When I went to the duty free shop, I bought a cartoon of Gauloises.

6. The plane took off and the stewardess came round with orange juice.

            When the plane had taken off, the stewardess came round with orange juice.

7. He drank the coffee and asked for another cup.

            When he had drunk the coffee, he asked for another cup.

8. I paid my bill and left the restaurant.

            When I had paid my bill, I left the restaurant.

9. He put his foot on the brake but nothing happened.

            When he put his foot on the brake, nothing happened.

10. I read the letter and threw it into the wastepaper basket.

            When I had read the letter, I threw it into the wastepaper basket.

11. I read his autobiography and discovered what a strange person he had been.

            When I had read his autobiography, I discovered what a strange person he had been.

 

11.2 As Soon As

            1. As soon as + simple past +simple past.

                                    As soon as + [sub+V2 + obj], + [Sub +V2 + Obj]

[if there is no gap between two events, or the second action is happened due to the reaction of the first event.]

            2. As soon as + simple past, + past perfect

                        As soon as + [sub +  had + V3 + obj], + [Sub + V2 + Obj]

[If there is gap between two events, or the second event is happened when the first action is finished]

3. We should not write “and immediately”, “immediately after”, “and then”, “and”. We should put comma (,) between them.

4. If there is no subject in the second clause we have to put the subject of the first clause.

5. We should put the first happened action first.

Q. change the sentences below using as soon as.

1. They saw the house and immediately fell in love with it.

            As soon as they saw the house, they fell in love with it.

2. I wrote the letter and posted it straight away.

            As soon as I had written the letter, I posted it straight away.

3. He got his exam results and immediately rang up his parents.

            As soon as she had got his exam results, he rang up his parents.

4. The train passed and immediately the crossing barrier went up.

             As soon as the train had passed, the crossing barrier went up.

5. He got married again immediately after his wife’s death.

            As soon as his wife had died, he got married again.

6. He left the house straight after breakfast.

            As soon as he had taken his breakfast, he left the house.

7. I looked into her eyes and knew immediately that she was she girl for me.

            As soon as I looked into her eyes, I knew that she was the girl for me.

11.4. Getting the order right.

Rules:

Right order:

            If the two works are put accordingly we have to do, that is right order.

            A: [Sub + v2 + obj] + before + [Sub + V2 +obj]

            B: [Sub +didn’t + V1 + obj] + until + [sub + had + V3 + obj]

            C: Sub +V2 + obj (result)

Wrong order:

            If the two works are not put accordingly we have to do, that is wrong order.

            A: [Sub + didn’t + V1 + obj] + before + [Sub + V2 +obj]

            B: [Sub + V2 + obj] + before + [sub + had + V3 + obj]

            C: Sub +V2 + obj (result)

W. O = wrong order

R. O. = Right order

Q. Decide whether the person did things in right order and say what happened as a result.

1. resigned/found another job                        (W. O.)                       

            A: He didn’t find another job before he resigned.

            B: He resigned before he had found another job.

            C: He became jobless.

2. Checked his change/left the shop               (R. O)

            A: He checked his change before he left the shop

            B: He didn’t leave the shop until he had checked his change.

            C: He was not deceived.

3. Started driving the car/insured it               (W.O)

            A: He didn’t insure the car before he started driving it.

            B: He started driving the car before he had insured it.

            C: He had an accident.

4. signed the contract/read it             (W. O.)

            A: He didn’t read the contract before he signed it.

            B: He signed the contract before he had read it.

            C: He was cheated.

5. had a good breakfast/set out                      (R. O.)

            A: He had a good breakfast before he set out.

            B: He didn’t set out until he had a good breakfast.

            C: He was no longer hungry.

6. fastened her seat belt/drove off      (R. O.)

            A: She fastened her seat belt before she drove off.

            B: She didn’t drive off until she had fastened her seat belt.

            C: She was safe in the accident.

7. wiped his feet/came in         (R. O.)

            A: He wiped his feet before he came in.

            B; He didn’t come in until he had wiped his feet.

            C: He kept his room clean.

11.6 Practice

Q. Develop the sentences below as the expression of unexpected events.

1. [Sub + had only just + V3 + Obj] + when + [Sub + V2 + Obj]

2. [No sooner +had + sub + V3 +obj] + than [Sub + V2 + Obj]

                                                                        [Sub +V2 +obj] = any unexpected event.

1.  The audience came out of the cinema…..

            a) The audience had only just come out of the cinema when the building collapsed.

            b) No sooner had the audience come out of the cinema than the building collapsed.

2. I reached the shore…..

            a) I had only just reached the shore when the storm broke out.

            b) No sooner had I reached the shore than the storm broke out.

3. I left the island….

            a) I had only just left the island when the volcano erupted.

            b) No sooner had I left the island than the volcano erupted.

4. I changed all my dollars into sterling…

            a) I had only just changed all my dollars into sterling when the value of dollars went down.

            b) No sooner had I changed all my dollars into sterling than the value of dollars went down.

5. We got the harvest in…

            a) We had only just got the harvest in when it started raining.

            b) No sooner had we got the harvest in than it started raining.

6. She insured the painting….

            a) She had only just insured the painting when it was stolen.

            b) No sooner had she insured the painting than it was stolen.

7. I sold my house……

            a) I had only just sold my house when it collapsed.

            b) No sooner had I sold my house than it collapsed.

Composition (Page 114) Paragraph writing

            1. Happiness

Happiness

            It is difficult to define what happiness is. In general sense, happiness it just the state of our mind when we are satisfied. So, mental satisfaction is happiness. Every person in the world wants to be happy but he /she couldn’t get it. Some people think that money and power give us happiness, but it is not so. Self satisfaction is happiness. In Mahabharata, It is said that we become happy when we leave our desire. Our greed and our desire make us unsatisfied what we have because we need more money and other property, then we become sad. It really depends on you. You choose to be happy because happiness never comes to a person. You see, a person (a man or woman or people) has the ability to choose. Maybe Happiness is a virtue. It is a feeling. It is a perspective. Happiness is not a permanent state, and no matter what we get, we will always swing between happiness and sadness. Just look at the miserable rich people out there. In terms of income, it has been shown that once we have a roof over our heads and food on the table, increasing amounts of money cannot buy more happiness.

            2. Jealousy

Jealousy

            Jealousy is unhappy and angry feeling at other’s progress. If we think we couldn’t do what a next person does, we become angry with his progress that is jealousy. For example when the mother gives delicious food to a small baby it makes the old child jealous. Sometime we become jealous even at out friend’s progress. It is a human nature to be jealous. But it shouldn’t be destructive. We should take it as for the encouragement of our own progress. If we only burn at the other’s progress, we could do nothing in our life and it would be harmful to us. For example when a boy is walking with another girl, his girlfriend becomes jealous. In films and plays we see that they become take revenge due to jealousy. If we become much jealous, it will ruin our life.

 

 

 

 

Unit: 12

Comparison

12.3 Comparing Prices.

Rules; Sub + comparative + than + obj.

            A is as +adj+ as +B.

            B is not + as +adj + as +A.

To show more than: twice/two times, three times.

To show less than : about, a little, a bit,

1. Tinned Peas: 25 p               frozen peas: 48 p

            Frozen peas are nearly twice as expensive as tinned peas.

            Frozen peas cost about twice as much as tinned peas.

            Tinned peas cost about a half the price of frozen peas.

2. Cotton sheets: £14              silk sheets: £150

            Cotton sheets are about an eleventh as expensive as silk sheets.

            Silk sheets cost about eleven times as much as cotton sheets.

            Cotton sheets are about an eleventh the price of silk sheets

3. Olive oil: £2                                    corn oil: £99p

            Olive oil is about twice as expensive as corn oil.

            Olive oil costs about twice as much as corn oil.

            Corn oil is about half of the price of olive oil.

4. Leather gloves: £8              woolen gloves: £2.75

            Leather gloves are three times as expensive as woolen gloves.

            Leather gloves cost about three times as much as woolen gloves.

            Woolen gloves are about a third the price of leather gloves.

5. Color TV: £310                  black & white TV: £60

            Color TV is about five times as expensive as black& white TV.

            Color TV costs about three times as much as black & white TV.

            Black & white TV is about one fifth the price of colour TV.

12.4 Measuring Other Differences.

            Write the other nouns in the table.

            Expensive                    price

            Deep                            depth

            High/tall                      height

            Wide                            width

            Thick                           thickness

            Long                            length

            Heavy                         weight

            Fast                             speed

12.6. Now change these sentences below into comparative sentences using: a) than b) as….as

1. The exam is not usually very difficult, but this year it was quite tough.

            a) The exam was tougher this year than it usually is.

            b) This year the exam wasn’t as easy as it usually is.

2. I had imagined my landlady would be in her fifties, but she turned out to be thirty.

            a) My landlady is younger than I had imagined her to be.

            b) My landlady isn’t as old as I have imagined her to be.

3. His parents would like him to work hard, but he doesn’t.

            a) His parents would like him to work harder than he does.

            b) He doesn’t work as hard as his parents would like him to do.

4. The washing machine makes a lot of noise, although it used to be fairly quiet.

            a) The washing machine is nosier than it used to be.

            b) The washing machine isn’t as quiet as it used to be.

5. You said I would enjoy the film, but in fact I didn’t like it much

            a) I enjoy the film less than you said I would do.

            b) I didn’t enjoy the film as much as you said I would do.

6. I had hoped to do quite a lot of work today, but I have only managed to do a little.

            a) I have done less work today than I had hoped to do.

            b) I haven’t done as much work today as I have hoped to do.

7. They could have helped me a lot, but in fact they hardly helped me at all.

            a) They helped me far less than they could have done.

            b) They didn’t help me as much as they could have done.

8.I hadn’t expected her to be very angry, but in fact she was absolutely furious.

            a) She was much more furious than I had expected her to be.

            b) She wasn’t as quiet as I had expected her to be.

9. Fifty people had been invited, but eighty came.

            a) Far more people came than we had invited.

            b) People didn’t come as few as we had invited.

Writing ( Page: 121)

            Q. A friend has written to you, saying he/she is on a strict diet and is eating very little, but that he/she is still putting on weight. Write a reply, explaining what he or she is doing wrong and giving some good advice.

                                                                                                                                    Adarshnagar

                                                                                                                                    Nepalgunj

                                                                                                                                    Date: 05/01/2012

Dear Shankar,

            I got your letter yesterday. I got to know your problem of putting of weight. You had written that you were on a strict diet and eating little.

            I think you have done something wrong in it. You perhaps don’t know how to lose your weight. At first you shouldn’t eat that food which contains fat and calories. You should reduce eating carbohydrate, meat and other oily food. The best way to reduce weight is to do physical exercise and yoga. Yoga would give you relief by making your body attractive and healthy. You can do jogging and you can go to the yoga center. If you try this for a month you surely lose your weight. I hope you will surely follow my suggestion. I hope I will get your reply soon.

                                                                                                                                    Yours

                                                                                                                        Ramesh Adhikari

Composition (page: 123)

Q. Write a review for a newspaper of a recent film, play or book.

                                    Munamadan: A historical Film of Nepal

              I’ve recently watch the film ‘Munamadan’. It is a Nepali film. I’ve watched it in a computer through CD.  This film really represents the picture of Nepalese youths who goes to the foreign countries leaving their family. Laxmi Prasad Devkota wrote the book Munamadan as a song, later the story is converted into a film. It is a historical and realistic film of Nepal. It is a tragedy, based on Nepal's most famous epic poem. Madan, a lower-class worker, is forced by poverty and mounting debts to go to Lhasa, Tibet, leaving behind his lonely mother and beloved wife, Muna. However, tragedy befalls him on the way home.

            In this film, Madan, a poor Nepalese youth goes to Lhasa to earn some money leaving his dearest wife Muna and his very old mother at his house. He earned money there. When he was coming to his house, he became sick on the way. But his friends left him alone there. A bhote meets min at night and took him to his house. He makes Madan healthy and he comes back to his house. At that time his mother and his wife were already dead in his memory. The film ends with the pathetic scene. It touches everybody’s heart.

            In this film, Deepak Tripathi is in the role of Madan and Usha Paudel is in the role of Muna. This film was directed by Gynendra Bdr. Deuja.This film has presented the typical Nepali theme of poverty and family love. The plot, dialogue and setting of the film are realistic. The songs are so heart touching and the decoration, costumes and dresses are all traditional one. I like to request all to watch this film at once because it teaches us about ourselves.

 

 

 

 

Unit: 13

 

13.1 When …

Q. Join the following remarks using when.

Rules:

1.      [When + you + V1 + Obj] , [you have to + V1 + obj]

2.      [When you have +V3 + obj] , [you + V1 + Obj]

1. arrive/border          -           show/passport

            When you arrive at the border, you have to show your passport.

            When you have shown your passport, you can go ahead.

2. water/boil                -           pour/teapot

            When you boil the water, you have to pour it into the teapot.

            When you have poured it into the teapot, you put some sugar in it.

3. turn off/light                       -           change/bulb

            When you turn off the light, you have to change the bulb.

            When you have changed the bulb, you turn on the light.

4. turn on/gas              -           light/gas

            When you turn on the gas, you have to light the gas.

            When you have lit the gas, you can cook your food.

5. meet/stranger                     -           shake/hands

            When you meet the stranger, you have to shake hands.

            When you have shook hands, you introduce yourself.

6. eat/meal                  -           pay/bill

            When you eat meal, you have to pay the bill.

            When you have paid the bill, you come out from the hotel

 

13.2 Emphasizing the Right Order

            We should put the work before which we have to do first. If the work is in wrong order we should replace it.

Rules: 1.  you should + first work + before +you second work.

            2. You shouldn’t + second work + until + you have + V3 second work.

            3. Otherwise + reason (sub + might +V1 +obj)

1. wind the film on/close the camera

            a) You should close the camera before you wind the film on.

            b) You shouldn’t wind the film on until you have closed the camera.

            c) Otherwise the film might be damaged.

2. wind the film on /take a picture

            a) You should wind the film on before you take a picture

            b) you should take a picture until you have wound the film on.

            c) Otherwise you might ruin the picture.

3. read the label/wash a blouse

            a) You should read the label before you wash a blouse.

            b) You shouldn’t wash a blouse, until you have read the label.

            c) Otherwise you might damage it.

4. turn off the mains/change the fuse

            a) You should turn off the mains before you change the fuse.

            b) You shouldn’t change the fuse until you have turned off the mains.

            c)  Otherwise you might get an electric shock.

5. pay the bill/check it

            a) You should check the bill before you pay it.

            b) You shouldn’t pay the bill until you have paid it.

            c) Otherwise you might pay more.

6. bandage a wound/ clean it

            a) You should clean a wound before you bandage it.

            b) You shouldn’t bandage a wound until you have cleaned it.

            c) Otherwise you might get an infection.

7. listen the weather forecast/go sailing

            a) You should listen the weather forecast, before you go siling.

             b) You shouldn’t go sailing until you have listened the weather forecast.

            c) Otherwise you might get weight.

8. Buy your girlfriend a ring/ask her to marry you

            a) You should ask your girlfriend to marry you before you buy her a ring.

            b) You shouldn’t buy your girlfriend a ring until you have asked her to marry you.

            c) Otherwise it might be useless.

13.4. Natural Process

All the verbs describe the changes of state. Which of them are used for talking about:

1.      Changes in size?                     = expand contract, shrink, stretch, swell

2.      Solids become liquids?         = melt, dissolve

3.      Liquids become solids?        = set, freeze,  congeal

4.      Liquids become gas?             = evaporate

5.      gases become liquid/             =condense

Expand,

contract,

 shrink,

 stretch,

 swell, melt,

dissolve,

 set,

freeze,

congeal,

 evaporate,

 condense

What happens when you……..

1. Put a lump of ice in glass of lemonade.

It melts.

2. leave a pullover in a hot water

            It shrinks

3. leave liquid cement on the ground.

            It sets

4. leave a bowl of water outside in the sun.

            It evaporates

5. leave a bowl of water outsides the south pole.

            It freezes

6. leave a bowl of hot water in front of a mirror.

            It condenses

7. put some lump of sugar in your coffee.

            It dissolves

8.blow into a balloon.

            It expands

9. pour cold water onto hot metal.    

            It contracts

10. leave rice in a bowl of water

            It swells

11. fill a bowl with blood and leave it.

            It congeals.

Composition (page 133)

Q. You are studying at a language school. Write a letter to a friend telling him/her what it is like.

                                                                                                                        Bhrikutinagar

Nepalgunj                                Date: 10/01/2012     

Dear Nisha,

            I got your kind letter yesterday and I became extremely happy knowing about your computer institute where you are studying. I’m going to write you about a language institute where I am learning English language.

            I think this Oasis Language Institute is the best institute of Nepalgunj. Only the experienced language instructors are there to teach us. They always tell us not to feel any hesitation to speak English whether it could be mistake while speaking. If we feel hesitation, we couldn’t speak it. They also focus on practice rather than the theory of English language. They use audio and visual teaching materials to teach us. Sometimes we have to talk with the tourists who come there. Sometimes the foreigners also take classes. Group discussion is basically focused to learn language. There is a good environment of learning English. I have been learning it for three months. I think I am improving my language than the past. I think I will be fluent in English with in six months. If you like to learn English, I’d like you to recommend this institute. I hope I will get your reply soon.

                                                                                                                        Yours lovely friend

                                                                                                                                    Preeti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 14

14.1 Practice

Q. Change the sentences below, using sure to, certain to, bound to, likely to and unlikely to:

Rules:

1. I’m sure = Sure to

2. Will certainly, will definitely = bound to /certain to

3. Will/will probably/ I I expect + will = likely to

4. probably won’t/ won’t, /I doubt if = unlikely to

Structure:

            Sub +is/am/are + (sure to/certain to/bound to/likely to/unlikely to) +V1 +Obj.

1. The price of bread will definitely go up within a few weeks.

The price of bread is bound to go up within a few weeks.

2. There will probably be more fighting in the capital.

            There is likely to be more fighting in the capital.

3. He probably won’t arrive.

            He is unlikely to arrive.

4. I expect there’ll be lots of people at the meeting.

            There is likely to be lots of people at the meeting.

5. I doubt if the miners will go on strike.

            The miners are unlikely to go on strike.

6. There probably won’t much snow this winter.

            There is unlikely to be much snow this winter.

7. There will definitely be a few tickets left.

            There are certainly to be few tickets left.

8. I doubt if they will move this summer.

            They are unlikely to move this summer.

9. I’m sure a new chairman will be appointed soon.

            A new chairman is sure to be appointed soon.

10. The government probably won’t make the wearing of seat belts compulsory.

            The government is unlikely to make the wearing of seat belts compulsory.

11. In ten years’ time everyone will have a digital watch.

            In ten years time everyone is likely to have a digital watch.

12. By the end of the century, cars will probably be obsolete.

            By the ten years’ time, cars are likely to be obsolete.

 

14.2 Precaution

1. Do you think I should reserve a table?

            A: Do you think I should reserve a table?

            B: Yes, you should- the restaurant is likely to be full.

            C: There is no point in – there are unlikely to be many people there.

2. I suppose I could try to get a bank loan.

            A: I suppose I could try to get a bank loan.

            B: Yes, you could – you are likely to start a new business.

            C: There is no point in – you are very unlikely to get a bank loan

3. I was thinking of inviting her out to dinner.

A: I was thinking of inviting her out to dinner

B: Yes, you should – she is sure to accept it.

            C: There is no point in – she is unlikely to accept your invitation.

4. Shall we take sandwiches?

            A: Shall we take sandwiches?

            B: Yes, you should – you are unlikely to get other things to eat.

            C: There is no point in – there are likely to be many other things.

5.  Do you think I should apply?

A: Do you think I should apply?

            B: Yes, you should – you are sure to get the job.

            C: There is no point – there are likely to be hundreds of applicant.

6. Do you think I should buy some spare batteries?

A: Do you think I should buy some spare batteries?

            B: Yes, you should – you are likely to walk in the dark.

            C: There is no point – these batteries are unlikely to be finished.

7. May be I should get some malaria tablets before I go.

A: May be I should get some malaria tablets before I go.

            B: Yes, you should – there are likely to many mosquitos.

            C: There is no point – there are likely to be many hospitals.

14.3 Horoscope

Q. Write the names of 12 zodiacs.

            1. Aries                       2. Taurus                    3. Gemini

            4. Cancer                    5. Leo                          6. Virgo                      

            7. Libra                       8. Scorpio                    9. Sagittarius

            10. Capricorn             11. Aquarius               12. Pisces

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit: 15

15.5 Hearsay

Rules:

1. We should avoid the following words from each sentence:

                                                                        Apparently

                                                                        People say

                                                                        They say that

                                                                         I am told that

                                                                        I have heard that.

2. We have to use is/am/are after each subject.

3. We should put Supposed to in each sentence after the subject.

4. We should use V1 after supposed to as:    is = be

                                                                        Are = be

                                                                        Am = be

                                                                        V5 = V1

                                                                        Has = have

                                                                        V2 = have + V3

                                                                        Was = have been

                                                                        Were = have been

                                                                        Had = have had

5. We have to put object as it is given

Q. Change the following remarks using supposed to.                                                                                                                                             

Structure: [Sub + is/am/are + supposed to + V1 + object.]

1. Apparently elephants have very long memories.

            Elephants are supposed to have very long memories

2. People say it is unlucky to walk under a ladder.

            It is supposed to be unlucky to walk under a ladder.

3. They say there is a monster in Loch Ness.

            There is supposed to be a monster in Loch Ness.

4. Apparently Marilyn Monroe was insomniac.

            Marilyn Monroe is supposed to have been insomniac.

5. I am told that garlic stops you catching cold.

            Garlic is supposed to stop you catching cold.

6. Apparently Venice is slowly sinking into the sea.

            Venice is supposed to be slowly sinking into the sea.

7. I’m told that he was a lorry driver at one time.

            He is supposed to have been a lorry driver at one time.

8. They say Methuselah lived for more than 300 years.

            Methuselah is supposed to have lived for more than 300 years.

9. I have heard that student grants are going up next year.

            Student grants are supposed to be going up next year.

10. People say she was born on board a ship.

            She is supposed to have been born on board a ship.

11. They say the universe is expanding all the time.

            The universe is supposed to be expanding all the time.

Practice:

Q. Answer threes questions using supposed to, apparently, I hear, I’m told, people say, they say.

1. Do you know if Alsatians make good pets?

            Alsatians are supposed to make good pets.

2. What does it feel like to be hypnotized?

            I hear it feels great to be hypnotized.

3. I am thinking of going to see (name of film). Do you know what it is like?

            People say The Bodyguard is a boring film.

4. I wonder what is happening in (name of country in the news)?

            I hear that people are dying in Japan.

5. What do you think (famous person) is like as a person?

            People say he was a far-sighted leader.

6. I wonder what it’s like to actually live in Hollywood?

            They say it is expensive to live in Hollywood.

7. Do you know anything about life in Ancient Greece?

            Life in Ancient Greece is supposed to have been interesting.

15.6 Passive reporting verbs

Rule: it is +V3 + that + sentence.

1. Some people report that the American Government is worried about the situation.

            It is reported that the American Government is worried about the situation                                                                                                                                                                                     

2. Sources estimate that more than 100 people have died in the past two days.

            It is estimated that more than 100 people have died in the past two days.

3. Everyone knows that the rebels’ weapons came across the border by road.

            It is known that the rebels’ weapons came across the border by road.

4. A lot of people believe that the President is about to resign.

            It is believed that the President is about to resign.

5. People say that the rebels are winning.

            It is said that the rebels are winning.

6. Some sources allege that both sides have tortured prisoners.

            It is alleged that both sides have tortured prisoners.

 

 

 

Work Book

Unit: 1

1. “Be used” (Page 7)

Continue the remarks below with a sentence using (not) used to.

Structure:

Sub + is/am/are +( not )+ used to +V4 + Obj

1. The traffic doesn’t wake him up at night.

            He is used to sleeping in the street.

2. He is going to find it hard work working on a building site.

            He isn’t used to working on a building site.

3. She is quite surprised when I gave her some flowers.

            She is not used to receiving flowers from others.

4. He won’t mind if you stare at him.

            He is used to being stared at.

5. I get a bit lonely sometimes, now that she has gone.

            I am not used to living alone.

6. It is quite hard work doing all my own washing and cleaning.

            I am not used to washing and cleaning.

7. I don’t think she’s ever opened a door herself.

            She is used to asking others to open her door.

8. You can bring as many friends as you like home to dinner.

            We are used to enjoying with the guests.

9. I’m not surprised he is out of breath.

            He is not used to running.

10. Ooh dear. I’ve got a stomach-ache.

            I’m not used to having oily food.

Unit: 2

2. Identifying with ‘Like’ (page: 10)

Continue the following remarks with look, sound, smell, feel, taste + like

Structure: Subject + [look, sound, smell, feel, taste] + like + Obj.    [He/she/it = V5]

1. Surely he is not a manual worker.

            He looks like a businessman to me.

2. Are you sure this is tea?

            It tastes like coffee.

3. I wonder who wrote that music.

            It sounds like the music of Sambhujit.

4. He has got a foreign accent.

            He sounds like an American.

5. This material is very soft.

            It feels like cotton.

6. What is that you are cooking?

            It smells like meat.

7. They have got very similar faces.

            They look like twins.

8. This isn’t real leather, is it?

            It feels like plastic.

9. I have got something in my shoe.

            It feels like a stone.

10. I don’t think you made this cake yourself.

            It tastes like the baker’s.

 

Unit 3

3. Previous Events (page: 13)

Complete the following sentences using the past perfect tense.

Rule:

I + had + V3

1. I apologized to him for all the inconvenience I had caused.

2. I took back to the library all the books I had borrowed.

3. I was thoroughly ashamed of the stupid mistake I had committed.

4. On the application form I had to list all the schools I had studied.

5. I couldn’t decide weather to apply for the job I had wanted.

6. He couldn’t pay back the money I had lent.

7. I complained to the examiner about the mark I had scored.

8. I wanted to show her the present I had bought.

9. I threw away the pieces of the vase I had broken.

Unit: 3 (page: 15)

Relative clause

Q. Join the following sentences together using s non-defining relative clause.

1. Finally Brown (Willis had sharing an office with him) decided to retire.

            Finally brown, with whom Willis had been sharing an office, decided to retire.

2. Mrs. Aldrich (she was married with two children) never recovered consciousness.

            Mrs. Aldrich, who was married with two children, never recovered consciousness.

3. The old house 9the family had lived in it for 300 years) was finally sold.

            The old house, in which the family had lived for 300 years, was finally sold.

4. Mary noticed that he was wearing her ring (she had lost it five years before).

            Mary noticed that he was wearing her ring which she had lost five years before.

5. Nobody liked the eldest son (Old lord Banbury had left all his money to him).

            Nobody liked the eldest son to whom Old lord Banbury had left all his money.

6. He proudly showed me round his house (he had paid £100000 for it).

            He proudly showed me round his house for which he had paid £100000.

7. He became quite fond of Brixton prison (he had spent so much of his life there).

            He became quite fond of Brixton prison where he had spent so much of his life.

8. Harold (she had always been in love with him) finally asked her to marry him).

            Harold, with whom she had always been in love, finally asked her to marry him.

9. Godfrey (his parents had been in the theatre) decided to become an actor himself.

            Godfrey, whose parents had been in the theatre, decided to become an actor himself.

10. In 1948 (he was still a student then) he joined the Conservative Party.

            In 1948, when he was still a student, he joined the Conservative Party

 

Unit: 4

Character Definitions (page: 19)

1.  A considerate person

            A considerate person is someone who is careful not to hurt your feelings.

2.  An unreliable person

            An unreliable person is someone who lets people down.

3. A Stingy person

            A Stingy person is someone who does not buy you drinks.

4. A thick-skinned person

            A thick-skinned person is someone who takes no care of how of other people criticize him.

5. A vain person

            A vain person is someone who has a high opinion of himself.

6. A skeptical person

            A skeptical person is someone who always doubts what you tell him.

7. An optimistic person

            An optimistic person is someone who expects only good things to happen.

 

8. A pessimist person

 A pessimist person is someone who expects bad things to happen.

9. A generous person

 A generous person is someone who gives away lots of money.

10. Reliable Person

  A reliable person is someone who does not let people down.

11.  Modest person

 A modest person is someone who doesn’t boast.

 

Unit: 5

Time Expressions (page: 22)

Fill in the sentences below with for, in, until, by.

Rule:

1. Activities: if the action is not complete and the actor could not show his achievement, that is activity.

                        Prepositions:    Period of time = for

                                                Point of time = until

2. Achievement: If the action is complete and the actor could show his/her achievement what he/she had done, that is achievement.

            Prepositions:    Period of time = in

                                    Point of time = by

1. She studied medicine by the age of 25.

2. They got the lunch ready by 12: 30.

3. He learnt to swim in six week.

4. They lived in New Castel until 1973.

5. My father ran a bookshop for two years.

6. We did all our housework in a couple of hours.

7. We did some housework for a couple of hours.

 8. I finished my homework by suppertime.

9. We discussed politics until three in the morning.

10. They reached the top of the mountain in four hours.

11. I borrowed my neighbor’s power drill for a few days.

12. He got all the letters typed by four o’clock.

13. The concert was over by half past nine.

14. He saved up £200 by Easter.

15. I studied French for five years.

16. She became a qualified physiotherapist in twelve months.

17. I dug the garden in a couple of hours.

18. He stayed in bed until lunchtime.

 

Unit: 6

Reporting

Q. Report the following remarks, beginning He told me….

1. My father is ill

He told me his father was ill.

2. I will tell her when I see her.

He told me he would tell her when he saw her.

3. I have been sleeping very badly.

He told me he had been sleeping very badly.

4. If they are waiting for you, you ought to go.

He told me if they were waiting for me I ought to go.

5. The price of petrol’s going to go up.

He told me the price of petrol was going to go up.

6. I’m sure she won’t mind if you use the phone.

He told me he was sure she wouldn’t mind if I used the phone.

7. I wasn’t invited to the wedding.

He said that he hadn’t been invited to the wedding.

8. I have had my car serviced.

He told me he had had his car serviced.

9. I’m reading that book you lent me.

He told me he was reading that book I had lent him.

10. They don’t play as much tennis as they used to.

He told me they didn’t play as much tennis as they used to.

11. Since they have already got one, there is no point in giving them one.

He told me since they had already got one; there was no point in giving them one.

12. You look as if you haven’t eaten for weeks.

He told me I looked as if I hadn’t eaten for weeks.

Q. Choose one of the verbs in the list to report each of the remarks below.

Promise,          advise ,                        suggest            ,           urge,    threaten,         recommend,    insist,   beg

1. I can’t tell you how important it is for you to give up smoking.

            He urged me to give up smoking.

2. You have got to lend me the money! Oh, please, please!

            He begged me to lend him the money.

3. Why don’t you paint the ceiling yellow?

            He suggested me to paint the ceiling yellow.

4. I’ll buy you an ice cream if you are good.

            He promised to buy me an ice cream if I was good.

5. You should spend a week in Scotland – it is lovely.

            He recommended that I should spend a week in Scotland.

6. No, I have already told you – I’m going to pay.

            He insisted that he was going to pay.

7. You really ought to have your roof repaired, you know.

            He advised me to have my roof repaired.

8. I’ll report to the police if you don’t do what I say.

            He threatened to report me to the police if I didn’t do what he said.

 

Unit: 7

Q. Rewrite the sentences below, using must, can’t, may/might.

1. I’m sure they have arrived.

They must have arrived.

2. I”M sure he is not having lunch having lunch.

He can’t be having lunch.

3. Perhaps he didn’t hear you.

He might not have heard you.

4. I’m sure it hasn’t been snowing.

It can’t have been snowing.

5. Perhaps he wasn’t telling the truth.

He might not have been telling the truth.

6. I’m sure you are exhausted.

You must be exhausted.

7. May be he was delayed.

He might have been delayed.

8. I’m convinced you haven’t forgotten my name.

You can’t have forgotten my name.

9. I am sure I was dreaming.

I must have been dreaming.

10. I’m sure you are imagining things.

You must be imagining things.

11. It is possible that they are going away.

They may be going away.

12. I’m sure they weren’t serious.

They can’t have been serious.

13. Obviously he has been kidnapped.

He must have been kidnapped.

14. Perhaps she is going to ring.

She may be going to ring.

15. I’m sure they weren’t informed.

They can’t have been informed.

Q. Explain the following deduction using if….sentence

Rules:

1.      If + simple present, + simple future

2.      If + simple past, + Would + V1

3.      If + past perfect, + would have + V3

1. He can’t be a soldier-he’s not wearing a uniform.

      If he was a soldier, he would be wearing a uniform.

2. There can’t be anyone at home – the car has gone.

      If there was anyone at home, the car wouldn’t have gone.

3. They must be having an argument – they have shut the door.

      If they were not having an argument, they wouldn’t have shut the door.

4. She can’t have been enjoying herself – she left early.

      If she had been enjoying herself, she wouldn’t have left early.

5. He must have been here recently – the kettle’s warm.

If he had not been here recently, the kittle wouldn’t have been warm.

6. He can’t be working at the library – I haven’t seen him.

      If he was working in the library, I would have seen him there.

7. She must know English – she was listening to BBC.

      If she didn’t know English, she would not be listening the BBC.

8. They must have got lost – they’re not here yet.

      If they had not got lost, they would be here now.

 

Unit: 8

Q. Rewrite the sentences about supermarkets below, beginning with the words given.

Encourage      enable,             allow,              make it easier,                        discourage,                 save,    force,               make it more difficult                                   

1. People tend to buy more in supermarkets because of the open display.

The open display encourages people to buy more.

2. People can also steal things more easily because of the open display.

The open display makes it easier to the people to steal things.

3. There’s a wide range of goods, so you can do all your shopping in one place.

The wide range of goods enables you to do all your shopping in one place.

4. Some supermarkets use cameras, so the people are less likely to steal things.

The use of cameras discourages people to steal things.

5. Must supermarkets have a car park next door, so costumers don’t have to carry their shopping a long way.

Having a car park next door saves costumers from carrying their shopping a long way.

6. Supermarkets buy in bulk, so they can sell thins at cut prices.

Buying in bulk allows them to sell things in cut prices.

7. Because supermarkets sell things at cut prices, smaller shops have to lower their prices too.

The cut prices in supermarkets forces smaller shops to lower their prices too.

8. Because of the competition from supermarkets, it’s harder for smaller shops to stay in business.

The competition from supermarkets makes it more difficult for smaller shops to stay in business.

 

Unit: 9

Indirect questions;

1. What does he do for a living? I often wonder.

I often wonder what he does for a living.

2. Does she like classical music? Can you remember?

Can you remember whether she likes classical music?

3. Where are you going for your holidays? Have you decided yet?

Have you decided yet where you are going for holidays?

4. Are you coming tomorrow? I need to know.

I need to know whether you are coming tomorrow.

5. Did you ever find your camera? I have been meaning to ask you.

I have been meaning to ask you whether you ever found your found your camera.

6. What crime was he been charged with? Do you know?

Do you know what crime he has been charged with.

7. Did he look angry? Did you notice?

Did you notice if he had looked angry?

 

Unit 10

Q. Write three wishes for the following situations each: 1) would 2) could 3) past tense

1. You are in bed with flue.

If only my temperature would go down.

I wish I could get up.

I wish there wasn’t so much traffic outside.

2. You are lost.

If only I would get some friend.

I wish I could inform my friend.

I wish I was able to find the way.

3. You are out of work.

I wish I could get a job.

If only I would start my business.

I wish I had a lot of money.

4. You are trying to communicate with a foreigner who doesn’t speak your language.

If only I would get interpreter.

I wish I could express my ideas.

I wish I was perfect in the new language.

5. You are in love.

If only I could write a love poem.

I wish she would live me.

I wish I talked to her about dating.

 

Unit 11

Events in Rapid Succession

Q. Write two sentences showing how the following pairs of events happened in rapid succession: (a) using only just (b) using no sooner

1. My grandfather retired / he had a heart attack

a) My grandfather had only just retired when he had a heart attack

b) No sooner had my grandfather retired than he had a heart attack.

2. The Wilkinsons went to bed / Mrs. Wilkinson heard a strange noise

a) The Wilkinsons had only just gone to bed when Mrs. Wilkinson heard a strange noise.

b) No sooner had the Wilkinsons gone to bed than Mrs. Wilkinson heard a strange noise.

3. The plane took off / three hijackers walked into the cabin.

a) The plane had only just taken off when three hijackers walked in the cabin.

b) No sooner had the plane taken off than three hijackers walked into the cabin.

4. I sat down to watch mu favourite program / some friends turned off.

a) I had only just sat down to watch my favourite programme when some friends turned off.

b) No sooner had I sat down to watch my favourite programme than some friends turned off.

5. The new exhibition hall was opened / it was destroyed by fire.

a) The new exhibition hall had only just opened when it was destroyed by fire.

b) No sooner had the new exhibition the new exhibition opened than it was destroyed by fire.

 

 

Unit: 12

Q. Write comparative sentences based on the information below.

1. Car sales last year in Britain: British Cars: 38% foreign cars: 62%

Foreign cars are a lot more popular than British cars   .           (a lot)

British cars aren’t nearly as popular as foreign cars.                (not nearly)

2. Exam Marks:          Jane: 75%      Paul: 42%

Jane scores far higher percentage of marks than Paul. (far)

Paul didn’t score nearly as high percentage of marks as Jane. (not nearly)

3. My house: £4000,   your house: £38500

My house costs slightly more than yours. (Slightly)

Your house costs almost as much as mine. (almost)

4. Jane is 16,               Paul is 17

Paul is a bit older than Jane. (a bit)

Jane isn’t quite as old as Paul. (not quite)

5. Math Exam 70% failed,     History Exam: 24% failed.

The Math exam was much more difficult than history exam. (much)

The history exam wasn’t nearly as difficult as the math exam. (not nearly)

Unit: 13

Getting the right order

1. Wash your hand / eat

a) You should wash your hand before you eat.

b) You shouldn’t eat until you have washed your hands.

c) Otherwise you might get an infection.

2. Close your windows / go out

a) You should close your windows before you go out.

b) You shouldn’t go out until you have closed your windows.

c) Otherwise thieves might enter your house.

3. have some driving lessons / take your driving test.

a) You should have some driving lessons before you take some driving test.

b) You shouldn’t take your driving test until you have had some driving test.

c) Otherwise you might fail the test.

4. clean your teeth / go to bed

a) You should clean your teeth before you go to bed.

b) You shouldn’t go to bed until you have cleaned your teeth.

c) Otherwise your teeth might be damaged.

5. test the temperature of the water / bath the baby

a) You should test the temperature of the water before you bath the baby.

b) You shouldn’t bath the baby until you have tested the temperature of the water.

c) Otherwise it might burn him.

Unit: 14

Giving Advice with predictions

1. Do you think I should learn Chinese/

Yes, you should – it’s sure to help you get a job.

I wouldn’t - you are unlikely to use it very much.

2. I was thinking of building a swimming pool in the garden.

Yes, you should – you are sure to make your health better by swimming in it.

I wouldn’t –you are unlikely to swim in water.

3. Perhaps I should take a week off work.

Yes, you should – you are likely to feel fresh after your holiday.

I wouldn’t – you are certain to be bored after a day or two.

4. I can’t decide whether to buy a house or not.

Yes, you should – you definitely want have to pay the higher rent.

No you shouldn’t – the rent is likely to be far over than the investment.

5. They have sent me the wrong size. Shall I write and complain?

Yes, you should – they are sure to send you the right size.

No, you shouldn’t – even the wrong one is likely to be lost.

 

Unit: 15

Passive reporting verbs

1. He was born in Manchester in 1932. (know)

  He is known to have been born in Manchester in 1932.

2. His parents took him to America when he was seven. (think)

His parents are thought to have taken him to America when he was seven.

3. He is worth five billion dollars. (estimate)

He is estimated to be worth five billion dollars.

4. He is living on a remote Greek island. (remour)

He’s remoured to be living on a remote Greek Island.

5. He was responsible for murders in the sixties. (allege)

He’s alleged to have been responsible for several murders in the sixties.

6. He has been married five times. (believe)

He’s believed to have been married five times.

7. He is a heavy drinker (say)

He is said to be a heavy drinker.

8. He has had a serious heart attack recently. (think)

He has thought to have had a serious heart attack recently.

9. Several governments are suing him for tax offences, (report)

Several governments are reported to be suing him for tax offences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Test Book

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Higher Secondary Education Board – HSEB

Examination – 2064

Class – XII (Management, Science, Education & Humanities)

Full Marks : 100                                   Pass Mark : 35                                                         Time : 3hrs

Attempt all the questions.

1.         Read the following passage and answer the questions below:    [5 × 3 = 15]

We were summoned to his room at the end of the day. Under normal conditions, he would welcome us with a smile, crack a joke or two, talk of nothing in particular for a couple of minutes and state the actual business. But today we found him dry and sullen. He motioned us to our seats and said, “Could you imagine a worse shock for me? I came across a student of the English Honours who did not know till this day that “honours’ had to be spelt with a ‘u’. He finished his sentence with a sharp, grim laugh. We looked at each other at a loss to know what to reply. Our Assistant Professor, Gajapathy, scowled at us as if it were us who had induced the boy to drop the ‘u’. Brown cleared his throat as a signal for further speech, and we watched his lips. He began to lecture on the importance of the English language, and the need for preserving its purity. Brown’s thirty years in India and had not been ill spent if they had opened the eyes of Indians to the need for speaking and writing correct English!

 (a)      What did Brown use to do in normal conditions?

Ans.    Brown used to smile, crack a joke or two. After remaining silent for a while, he used to state the actual business of his own.

(b)       Why was Brown in a worse shock that very days ?

Ans.    Brown was in a worse shock that very day because he had come across a student of the English Honours who hadn’t known how to honour others with the correct pronunciation of English words. The pronunciation of the word made by the student really shocked him.

(c)       What did Gajapathy’s scowling indicate?

Ans.    Gajapathy’s scowling indicated that he didn’t have any agreement with the comment of Mr. Brown of English word pronunciation regarding honour to pronounce the word ‘u’.

(d)       On what issue did Brown begin to lecture before his college staff?

Ans.    Brown began to lecture before his college staff on the importance of the English language, and the need for preserving its purity.

(e)       Summarize the passage in about 40 words.

Ans.    Mr. Brown had become upset due to the wrong pronunciation of English words by Indian student. He was worried about the loss of purity of English language in India. He emphasized on preserving the purity of English language in both spoken and written form especially in India.

2.    Rewrite the following sentences below using ‘must, can’t or might/may‘.  [5 × 1 = 5]

(a)       Perhaps she didn’t get what you said.

Ans.    She mayn’t have got what you said.

(b)       I’m sure they have left.

Ans.    They must have left.

(c)       Maybe the election will be postponed.

Ans.    The election might be postponed.

(d)       It’s possible that there will be peace in Nepal.

Ans.    There may be peace in Nepal.

(e)       Obviously the gardener was not serious.

Ans.    The gardener can’t have been serious.

3.         Choose one of the verbs in the list to report each of the remarks below:    [5 × 1 = 5]

urge,    insist,     advise,     suggest,    threaten,    recommend

Example :               It’s very important for you to give up drinks.

            Ans:         He urged me to give up drinks.

(a)       I’ll report you to the police if you don’t do what I say.

Ans.    He threatened me to report to the police.

(b)       Why don’t you start medicine if you can’t bear the pain?

Ans.    He suggested me that I should start medicine.

(c)       No, I’ve already told you- I am going to pay.

Ans.    He insisted me to pay the bill himself.

(d)       You really ought to have your bike serviced, you see.

Ans.    He recommended me to have my bike serviced.

(e)       You should try it once again. You may win.

Ans.    He advised me to try it again.

4.       Fill the gaps in the sentences below with ‘for’, ‘in’, ‘until’ or ‘by’. [5 × 1 = 5]

(a)      Last night we talked ……… two in the morning.

Ans.    Last night we talked until two in the morning.

(b)      They will be here ……. a couple of hours.

Ans.    They will be here in a couple of hours.

(c)       She studied Spanish …….. five years.

Ans.    She studied Spanish for five years.

(d)      The food will be ready ………. 9:30.

Ans.    The food will be ready by 9:30.

(e)       He learnt to swim ……… three weeks.

Ans.    He learnt to swim in three weeks.

5.       Write a sentence each using the following information showing right order of the action: [5×1 = 5]

Example :               clean a wound / bandage it

                                Yes should clean a wound before you bandage it.

(a)      Wash your hands / eat.

Ans.    You should wash your hands before you eat.

(b)      close your windows / go out.

Ans.    You should close your windows before you go out.

(c)       have some driving lessons / take your driving test.

Ans.    You should have some driving lessons before you take your driving test.

(d)      clean your teeth / go to bed.

Ans.    You should clean your teeth before you go to bed.

(e)       test the temperature of the water / bathe the baby.

Ans.    You should test the temperature of the water before you bathe the baby.

6. Write a sentence showing how the following pairs of events happened in  rapid succession using ‘No sooner’.                                          [5 × 1 = 5]

(a)      My grandfather retired / he had a heart attack.

Ans.    No sooner had my grandfather retired than he had a heart attack.

(b)      Shama went to bed / Shama heard a strange noise.

Ans.    No sooner had Shama gone to bed than she heard a strange noise.

(c)       The plane took off / three hijackers walked into the cabin.

Ans.    No sooner had the plane taken off than three hijackers walked into the cabin.

(d)      The new exhibition hall was opened / it was destroyed by fire.

Ans.    No sooner had the exhibition hall been opened than it was destroyed by fire.

(e)       We had the washing machine repaired / it broke down again.

Ans.    No sooner had the washing machine been repaired than it broke down again.

7.       Join the following sentence together using a relative clause:         [5 × 1 = 5]

(a)      Finally Browne decided to retire.

            Willis had been sharing an office with him.

Ans.    Finally Browne decided to retire with whom Willis had been sharing an office.

(b)      The old house was finally sold.

            The family had lived in it for 300 years.

Ans.    The old house where the family had lived for 300 years was finally sold.

(c)       He proudly showed me round his house.

            He had paid 40 lakhs for it.

Ans.    He proudly showed me round his house for which he had paid 40 lakhs.

(d)      He became quite fond of his college.

            He had spent many years of his life there.

Ans.    He became quite fond of his college where he had spent many years of his life.

(e)       Harold finally asked her to marry him.

            She had always been in love with him.

Ans.    Harold finally asked her to marry him who had always been in love with him.

8.       Write a paragraph predicting future developments concerning world population, using the ideas below: Birth control, government control, new sources of food, disease, longer life.

Ans.                                                                      Over Population

Population consists of males and females and it is always a flux. Every minute’s infants are born and aged or other people die. The total number of people living in a certain place in a certain time is population.  It is increasing in an alarming rate. Malthus, a mathematician says that human population always increases to the limit of the food available. Unless rapid increase of population is checked in time, the entire humanity surely faces the troubles of existence. So, the governments of the countries in the world should compose strict rules and regulations by law and order to prevent polygamy. Government should launch the programmes of family planning effectively to control the unwanted birth. Researching task for finding new sources of food should be launched so that we can feed the people. Because of our population, several sorts of total diseases can be seen. Over population increase vulgarity, brutality and they can commit crimes. AIDS has sprayed because of sexual crime. On the other hand modern medicine has made the life of human even longer.

9.       Suppose that your foreign friend is visiting Nepal in the near future. Write a letter to him or her describing about the places he or she should visit. (Suppose: you are Bidhyapati and your school’s name is Rara Higher Secondary School, Mugu) [1×10=10]

Ans.

                                                                                                                                      Mugu, Karnali

                                                                                                                                      2 Aug. 2007

            Dear Thomas,

            I received your letter this morning and it made me feel pleasure to know that you are coming to visit Nepal. I can’t help sharing my happiness with you being restless to receive you with the hearty welcome.

            Thomas, you must have known some facts and figures of Nepal. This is the land, which stands as the roof of the world with all its dignity. Mount Everest stands as natural pillar to the Himalayas. Gautam Buddha the founder of Buddhism philosophy was also born in Nepal. This is to say, you will enjoy sight-seeing the beautiful scenes of endless series of snow capped mountains.

            Paul, we feel that Nepal is a part of heaven. It has got the boons of Nature. The singing rivers, tranquil lakes, simmering water falls, deepest gorges beautiful, fine flora and faunas, unique landscape, artistic temples and monasteries are all the beautiful ornaments of our mother Nepal. Luckily my locality possesses the greatest lake called Rara Lake and we are going to observe a month lasting ‘Rara Festival’ to invite domestic cum foreign tourists.

            Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, holds many artistic and attractive arts and architects. They fascinate everyone. I hope you would enjoy everything in Nepal.

            Wish you all the best.

Yours sincerely,

Bidyapati Rokaya

Rara Higher Secondary School

Q. 10 Write a review for a newspaper of a recent film or a play you enjoyed or a book you read.  [1 × 10 = 10]

Munamadan: A historical Film of Nepal

              I’ve recently watch the film ‘Munamadan’. It is a Nepali film. I’ve watched it in a computer through CD.  This film really represents the picture of Nepalese youths who goes to the foreign countries leaving their family. Laxmi Prasad Devkota wrote the book Munamadan as a song, later the story is converted into a film. It is a historical and realistic film of Nepal. It is a tragedy, based on Nepal's most famous epic poem. Madan, a lower-class worker, is forced by poverty and mounting debts to go to Lhasa, Tibet, leaving behind his lonely mother and beloved wife, Muna. However, tragedy befalls him on the way home.

            In this film, Madan, a poor Nepalese youth goes to Lhasa to earn some money leaving his dearest wife Muna and his very old mother at his house. He earned money there. When he was coming to his house, he became sick on the way. But his friends left him alone there. A bhote meets min at night and took him to his house. He makes Madan healthy and he comes back to his house. At that time his mother and his wife were already dead in his memory. The film ends with the pathetic scene. It touches everybody’s heart.

            In this film, Deepak Tripathi is in the role of Madan and Usha Paudel is in the role of Muna. This film was directed by Gynendra Bdr. Deuja.This film has presented the typical Nepali theme of poverty and family love. The plot, dialogue and setting of the film are realistic. The songs are so heart touching and the decoration, costumes and dresses are all traditional one. I like to request all to watch this film at once because it teaches us about ourselves.

11.      Write a “police description” of a person you know well.          [1 × 5 = 5]

Ans.    I’ve known a person for two whole academic years. He is not other than my English teacher. In my perception, he is intelligent. He is tall. He is about 6 feet tall. He has partly white and partly black hair. He wears spectacle. He speaks with loud voice. He usually keeps short moustache and French cut beard. He always wears a tie. He has round and oval face. He has pointed nose and chin. He has slightly bald head. He has wide eyes and bushy eyebrows.

12.    Answer any five questions.                                [5 × 3 = 15]

(a)       How did Alyohin define love?  (About Love)

Ans.    Alyohin defined love as a mysterious thing beyond all types of social limitations in About Love. Alyohin presented three love stories to define the meaning of love. Love story between Nikanor and Pelageya justified that love is possible between too much unmatchable persons having totally different life ideologies. Love story between Alyohin himself and Anna also justified love as a mysterious thing. Alyohin was graduate and an unmarried person. Anna was married woman and mother of two children. They loved each other but they didn’t know that they loved each other. They only knew that one loved the other. Love between two distinctively different persons like Alyohin and Anna was also possible. So, love is defined as a mysterious flexible thing which is not limited within social, age, caste, religious and class factors. Anton Chekhov tries to justify the meaning and definition of love through Alyohin as an unlimited and unrestricted thing in the world which crosses every type of boundaries.

(b)       Why did the boy have to prove who he was? (The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship)

Ans.    This amazing story shows the steady development of a boy into adulthood. In course of his development, he encounters with the ghost ship many times. The more he visualizes the ship the more mature he becomes. Many years ago, when he saw the ship for the first time he was a boy. The ship was amazingly large and heading to the land without any lights and sound. It would disappear if there came the light from the lighthouse. So, the boy thought it was a fantastic dream. As he saw the ship next year he told his mother about it and insisted her to see it. But she said that her son had gone down crazy. So, she promised him to see it next year and went to the town to buy a chair asking a boatman to watch her son. As she died, the villagers accused the boy of fetching misfortune into the village. With the evil chair. so, he preferred stealing fish from the boat rather to live on charity. They mercilessly beat him as he asked them to watch the ship. Eventually, the hatred, rage and the isolation made the boy quite resolute, strong and fearless. He was neither confused by emotion nor frightened by the miracle. It is a sign of his maturity. So, the boy when saw the ship suddenly realized that he could control its movement by using the lantern. He took control over the ship and made it follow him to the village church. He felt that all the disbelievers watched all this, being stunned. Thus, he proved his manhood.

(c)       What is the main idea of the essay?             (Women’s Business)

Ans.    Women’s business presents a main idea that business women were much successful in America. They are much popular too. Their production and business benefited many people in different ways. Business women were involved in producing some useful things to women like cosmetics. They produced not only useful things to women but also they suggested and helped to cure the problems of women like nervousness, hysteria, barrenness, and so on. In America business women like Lydia E. Pinkham, Elizabeth, and Jenny Grossinger were very much successful and they could earn a lot of money by selling their products due to the means of advertisements, suggestion and inspiration to use their products. So, in conclusion, the essay Women’s Business expresses that even women can do as good business as men can and they get success in business with the help of media and their own courtesy to American women in the form of useful suggestions and tools.

(d)       Describe the scene when the narrator killed the old man. (The Tell – Tale Heart)

Ans.    When the narrator decided to kill the old man, every night, about midnight, he turned the latch of the old man’s door and opened it gently. Then he pushed his head from the door and sent a ray of light of his lantern to the old man’s eye very slowly so that he might not disturb the old men’s sleep. It took him an hour to place his head within the opening. He did such work for seven long nights but he found the old man’s evil eye always closed and every morning he went to the old man’s room, spoke calling him by name in a hearty tone and inquiring how he had passed the night. On the eighth night the boy was very careful to do such things. But when he pushed his head from the opening to see the old man and was about to open the lantern, his thumb slipped upon the tin fastening and the old man jumped up in bed crying out “Who is there?” The boy stood still saying nothing. He became a symbolic shadow for the death of the old man. He waited for some time very patiently. Then, being courageous, he threw open the lantern and leaped into the room, the old man cried once only. He killed him quickly, dragged him to the floor and pulled the heavy bed over the dead body. Then he removed the bed and examined the corpse but the old man was stone dead. Then the boy thought that the old man’s eye, would trouble him no more. He wanted to hide his crime. So he cut off the head, arms and legs of the corpse. He put the pieces of the dead body under the three wooden planks in the same room. There was no stain of the murder, no blood spot. He finished all that work at four o’clock in the morning.

(e)       How do the adoption agencies find the potential parents? (The Children Who Wait)

Ans.    “The Children Who Wait” by Marsha Traugot discusses the adoption system and problems in America in twentieth century. In this story there are three parties: the children waiting for adoption, the family to adopt them and agencies to look after them and to search for suitable adoptive family. In the beginning black and disabled children had to wait for a long time. White and good children were adopted easily. Agents had to find out potential parents especially for black over age, and handicapped children. They had to look for both or one biracial parents for black children. For disabled or handicapped children, the agents had to look for parents who did not think the children could be all rounder or they could think mental capacity was only a factor of life. So, agents had to advertise or give information about the children to the potential parents.

(f)       The plan was to go to Porthcawl for the outing. Did they ever reach there? Why?  (A Story)

Ans.    In a story, Thomas and his friend had a plan to go to Porthawl for the outing but they did not reach there because their main intention was to drink in outing. They had no special purpose except drinking. Porthcawl was important for nothing to them. It was only their thing to just say. On the way to Porthcawl they stopped their bus in front of a pub or hotel to drink. They started to drink. They drank till the late afternoon. They forgot to go to Porthcawl because it was not the place in their intention. They drank which was their aim. After 4 p. m. they returned to their village. That’s why; they never reached Porthcawl for the outing.

13.      Answer any one of the following questions. [1 × 10 = 10]

(a)       Sketch the character of Mrs. Mooney. (The Boarding House)

Ans.    Mrs. Mooney, the main character of the story The Boarding House possessed a civilized and conscious character or behaviour. She had a daughter called Polly once fell in love with a boy called Mr. Doran. Gradually, people came to know about their relationship and started to gossip. Finally, Mrs. Mooney came to know the fact. Due to her civilized manner, she didn’t get angry but planned to make a perfect inquiry to find out the fact. If Doran had no bad intention, she would allow them to get married. If not she would take action against him to pay as a compensation. Later on, it is understood that she settled the problems between them and allowed them to go ahead. Before this event, she had started a shop to sell meat. She had two children. She got separated from her husband after he became useless to business. She followed legal process to get separated. She started a business of boarding house where many people stayed from short to long time. From such kind of ideas and schemes of Mrs. Mooney, we can say that she was bold, decisive, responsible, civilized and a perfect woman. On the other hand, she gave responsibility to her daughter and son. Miss Polly had to be responsible to look after the boarding house. It means Mrs. Mooney was conscious to make them independent. So, regarding her character, Mrs. Mooney is courageous, business skilled, and deserving all types of qualities fit in modern time.

(b)       “We are always punished for our sins.” Elaborate this statement. (Purgatory)

Ans.    The statement ‘We are always punished for our sins”  extracted from Purgatory by W. B. Yeats expresses that any person will be ultimately punished for his/her bad and criminal activities. It means all sinners must be punished and punishment is necessary for all defaulters. Yeats makes the speaker say this so to strengthen his idea about punishment and sinners. It is obviously a spiritual and religious expression towards the bad or sinful works and punishment from god. The speaker accepts the reality that every sinner deserves to be punished. God is not blind to punish everybody randomly. He punished only those who commit sins. It gives also idea that no one should make sins or mistakes. God discriminately punishes the sinners. No sinner is excused in his/her life. That’s why, every spiritual factor of religious belief inspires people to remain sacred and mistake less. And every sinner must be ready to accept any kind of punishment.